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  1. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the most common of the breast cancer special types, accounting for up to 15% of all breast cancer cases. ILCs are noted for their lack of E-cadherin function, which underpin...

    Authors: Amy E. McCart Reed, Lauren Kalinowski, Peter T. Simpson and Sunil R. Lakhani
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:6
  2. NRG1 gene fusions may be clinically actionable, since cancers carrying the fusion transcripts can be sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The NRG1 gene encodes ligands for the HER2(ERBB2)-ERBB3 heterodimeric ...

    Authors: Karen D. Howarth, Tashfina Mirza, Susanna L. Cooke, Suet-Feung Chin, Jessica C. Pole, Ernest Turro, Matthew D. Eldridge, Raquel Manzano Garcia, Oscar M. Rueda, Chris Boursnell, Jean E. Abraham, Carlos Caldas and Paul A. W. Edwards
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:3
  3. The H&E stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (sTIL) score and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) SP142 immunohistochemistry assay are prognostic and predictive in early-stage breast cancer, but are operator-de...

    Authors: Katherine Sanchez, Isaac Kim, Brie Chun, Joanna Pucilowska, William L. Redmond, Walter J. Urba, Maritza Martel, Yaping Wu, Mary Campbell, Zhaoyu Sun, Gary Grunkemeier, Shu Ching Chang, Brady Bernard and David B. Page
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:2
  4. Endocrine therapy resistance is a hallmark of advanced estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine acquired genomic changes in endocrine-resistant disease.

    Authors: Nolan Priedigkeit, Kai Ding, William Horne, Jay K. Kolls, Tian Du, Peter C. Lucas, Jens-Uwe Blohmer, Carsten Denkert, Anna Machleidt, Barbara Ingold-Heppner, Steffi Oesterreich and Adrian V. Lee
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:1
  5. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are of important prognostic and predictive value in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC),...

    Authors: Christine Lundgren, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Maria Ekholm, Mårten Fernö, Carina Forsare, Ute Krüger, Bo Nordenskjöld, Olle Stål and Lisa Rydén
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:140
  6. Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin V has previously been shown to exhibit elevated expression in breast cancer tissue and be associated with distant metastasis. Research has also identified that cathepsin V...

    Authors: Naphannop Sereesongsaeng, Sara H. McDowell, James F. Burrows, Christopher J. Scott and Roberta E. Burden
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:139
  7. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be associated with breast cancer risk, but previous studies of the association are equivocal and limited by incomplete bl...

    Authors: Gordon P. Watt, Janice Sung, Elizabeth A. Morris, Saundra S. Buys, Angela R. Bradbury, Jennifer D. Brooks, Emily F. Conant, Susan P. Weinstein, Despina Kontos, Meghan Woods, Sarah V. Colonna, Xiaolin Liang, Matthew A. Stein, Malcolm C. Pike and Jonine L. Bernstein
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:138
  8. Survival rates for breast cancer (BC) have improved, but quality of life post-diagnosis/treatment can be adversely affected, with survivors reporting a constellation of psychoneurological symptoms (PNS) includ...

    Authors: Areej A. Alhareeri, Kellie J. Archer, Han Fu, Debra E. Lyon, R. K. Elswick Jr, Debra L. Kelly, Angela R. Starkweather, Lynne W. Elmore, Yahya A. Bokhari and Colleen K. Jackson-Cook
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:137
  9. Breast cancers acquire aggressive capabilities via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which various integrins/integrin-linked kinase signalling are upregulated.

    Authors: Razan Wafai, Elizabeth D. Williams, Emma de Souza, Peter T. Simpson, Amy E. McCart Reed, Jamie R. Kutasovic, Mark Waltham, Cameron E. Snell, Tony Blick, Erik W. Thompson and Honor J. Hugo
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:136
  10. The lack of specificity and high degree of false positive and false negative rates when using mammographic screening for detecting early-stage breast cancer is a critical issue. Blood-based molecular assays th...

    Authors: Claudia Fredolini, Khyatiben V. Pathak, Luisa Paris, Kristina M. Chapple, Kristine A. Tsantilas, Matthew Rosenow, Tony J. Tegeler, Krystine Garcia-Mansfield, Davide Tamburro, Weidong Zhou, Paul Russo, Samuele Massarut, Francesco Facchiano, Claudio Belluco, Ruggero De Maria, Enrico Garaci…
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:135
  11. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare but aggressive carcinoma characterized by severe erythema and edema of the breast, with many patients presenting in advanced metastatic disease. The “inflammatory” na...

    Authors: Sandra V. Fernandez, Alexander W. MacFarlane IV, Mowafaq Jillab, Maria F. Arisi, Jennifer Yearley, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Yulan Gong, Kathy Q. Cai, R. Katherine Alpaugh, Massimo Cristofanilli and Kerry S. Campbell
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:134
  12. Targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are limited; however, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents a potential target, as the majority of TNBC express EGFR. The purpose of...

    Authors: Jason J. Zoeller, Aleksandr Vagodny, Veerle W. Daniels, Krishan Taneja, Benjamin Y. Tan, Yoko S. DeRose, Maihi Fujita, Alana L. Welm, Anthony Letai, Joel D. Leverson, Vincent Blot, Roderick T. Bronson, Deborah A. Dillon and Joan S. Brugge
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:132
  13. We aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab and carboplatin in patients with breast cancer brain metastases.

    Authors: Jose Pablo Leone, Kyrre E. Emblem, Michelle Weitz, Rebecca S. Gelman, Bryan P. Schneider, Rachel A. Freedman, Jerry Younger, Marco C. Pinho, A. Gregory Sorensen, Elizabeth R. Gerstner, Gordon Harris, Ian E. Krop, Daniel Morganstern, Jessica Sohl, Jiani Hu, Elizabeth Kasparian…
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:131
  14. Chemotherapy is the standard treatment for breast cancer; however, the response to chemotherapy is disappointingly low. Here, we investigated the alternative therapeutic efficacy of novel combination treatment...

    Authors: Kyung-Min Lee, Hyebin Lee, Dohyun Han, Woo Kyung Moon, Kwangsoo Kim, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Jinwoo Choi, Eun Hye Hwang, Seong Eun Kang, Seock-Ah Im, Kyung-Hun Lee and Han Suk Ryu
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:130
  15. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer (BC) risk, but cohort studies largely consider use only at enrollment. Evidence is limited on how changes in MHT use alter the magnitude of risk, and wh...

    Authors: Shao-Ming Wang, Ruth M. Pfeiffer, Gretchen L. Gierach and Roni T. Falk
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:129
  16. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane particles that contribute to cancer progression and metastases by transporting biologically significant proteins and nucleic acids. They may also serve as biomar...

    Authors: Kimberly R. Jordan, Jessica K. Hall, Troy Schedin, Michelle Borakove, Jenny J. Xian, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Traci R. Lyons, Pepper Schedin, Kirk C. Hansen and Virginia F. Borges
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:128
  17. Based on the androgen receptor (AR) expression, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) can be subdivided into AR-positive TNBC and AR-negative TNBC, also known as quadruple-negative breast cancer (QNBC). QNBC ch...

    Authors: Shristi Bhattarai, Geetanjali Saini, Keerthi Gogineni and Ritu Aneja
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:127
  18. Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2), a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins, has been implicated as a tumour suppressor in breast cancer. However, its exact role in breast cancer en...

    Authors: Athina Giannoudis, Mohammed Imad Malki, Bharath Rudraraju, Hisham Mohhamed, Suraj Menon, Triantafillos Liloglou, Simak Ali, Jason S. Carroll and Carlo Palmieri
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:126
  19. CRIPTO is a multi-functional signaling protein that promotes stemness and oncogenesis. We previously developed a CRIPTO antagonist, ALK4L75A-Fc, and showed that it causes loss of the stem cell phenotype in normal...

    Authors: Ozlen Balcioglu, Richard E. Heinz, David W. Freeman, Brooke L. Gates, Berhane M. Hagos, Evan Booker, Elnaz Mirzaei Mehrabad, Hyrum T. Diesen, Kishan Bhakta, Supraja Ranganathan, Masami Kachi, Mathias Leblanc, Peter C. Gray and Benjamin T. Spike
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:125
  20. Preclinical research suggests that the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer can be enhanced by combining them with antiangiogenics, particularly in a sequential fashion. We sought to explo...

    Authors: Miguel Quintela-Fandino, Esther Holgado, Luis Manso, Serafin Morales, Begoña Bermejo, Ramon Colomer, Juan V. Apala, Raquel Blanco, Manuel Muñoz, Eduardo Caleiras, Vega Iranzo, Mario Martinez, Orlando Dominguez, Javier Hornedo, Lucia Gonzalez-Cortijo, Javier Cortes…
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:124
  21. 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) stimulates estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) progression. Inhibiting the sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) abrogates these growth-promoting effects of 27HC in mice....

    Authors: Siker Kimbung, Maria Inasu, Tor Stålhammar, Björn Nodin, Karin Elebro, Helga Tryggvadottir, Maria Ygland Rödström, Karin Jirström, Karolin Isaksson, Helena Jernström and Signe Borgquist
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:123
  22. The role of nuclear receptors in both the aetiology and treatment of breast cancer is exemplified by the use of the oestrogen receptor (ER) as a prognostic marker and treatment target. Treatments targeting the...

    Authors: Tram B. Doan, Vanessa Cheung, Colin D. Clyne, Heidi N. Hilton, Natalie Eriksson, Morag J. Young, John W. Funder, George E. O. Muscat, Peter J. Fuller, Christine L. Clarke and J. Dinny Graham
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:122
  23. Metaplastic breast cancer (MpBC) is an exceedingly rare breast cancer variant that is therapeutically challenging and aggressive. MpBC is defined by the histological presence of at least two cellular types, ty...

    Authors: Tejaswini P. Reddy, Roberto R. Rosato, Xiaoxian Li, Stacy Moulder, Helen Piwnica-Worms and Jenny C. Chang
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:121
  24. Treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer remain limited. Activation of the PI3K pathway via loss of PTEN and/or INPP4B is common. Buparlisib is an orally bioavailable, pan-class I PI3K inhibitor. We ev...

    Authors: Ana C. Garrido-Castro, Cristina Saura, Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Hao Guo, Eva Ciruelos, Begoña Bermejo, Joaquin Gavilá, Violeta Serra, Aleix Prat, Laia Paré, Pamela Céliz, Patricia Villagrasa, Yisheng Li, Jennifer Savoie, Zhan Xu, Carlos L. Arteaga…
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:120
  25. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic significance of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT for evaluation of responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients.

    Authors: Sangwon Han and Joon Young Choi
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:119
  26. Although anti-inflammatory agents could theoretically have anticancer properties, results from cohort studies on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and breast cancer (BC) risk are inconsistent.

    Authors: Manon Cairat, Marie Al Rahmoun, Marc J. Gunter, Gianluca Severi, Laure Dossus and Agnès Fournier
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:118
  27. Although breast cancer mortality is a result of distant recurrences associated with the establishment of tumor dormancy, current clinical practice guidelines recommend a wait and watch approach for tumor recur...

    Authors: Hussein F. Aqbi, Cara Coleman, Melika Zarei, Saeed H. Manjili, Laura Graham, Jennifer Koblinski, Chunquing Guo, Yibin Xie, Georgi Guruli, Harry D. Bear, Michael O. Idowu, Mehran Habibi, Xiang-Yang Wang and Masoud H. Manjili
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:116
  28. Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) development, recurrence, and death. In view of this, we aimed to investigate the clinical value of obesity in BC patients treated with anti-HER2 therapies in the...

    Authors: Serena Di Cosimo, Luca Porcu, Dominique Agbor-tarh, Saverio Cinieri, Maria Alice Franzoi, Maria Carmen De Santis, Cristina Saura, Jens Huober, Debora Fumagalli, Miguel Izquierdo, Martine Piccart, Maria Grazia Daidone and Evandro de Azambuja
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:115
  29. The global observational BREAKOUT study investigated germline BRCA mutation (gBRCAm) prevalence in a population of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (...

    Authors: Joyce O’Shaughnessy, Christine Brezden-Masley, Marina Cazzaniga, Tapashi Dalvi, Graham Walker, James Bennett and Shozo Ohsumi
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:114
  30. Immunotherapy has recently been proposed as a promising treatment to stop breast cancer (BrCa) progression and metastasis. However, there has been limited success in the treatment of BrCa with immune checkpoin...

    Authors: Benjamin Heng, Ayse A. Bilgin, David B. Lovejoy, Vanessa X. Tan, Heloisa H. Milioli, Laurence Gluch, Sonia Bustamante, Tharani Sabaretnam, Pablo Moscato, Chai K. Lim and Gilles J. Guillemin
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:113
  31. Earlier age at menarche is an established risk factor for breast cancer. While age at menarche has been fairly stable over the past half-century, age at breast development (thelarche) has continued to decrease...

    Authors: Mandy Goldberg, Aimee A. D’Aloisio, Katie M. O’Brien, Shanshan Zhao and Dale P. Sandler
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:112
  32. When chemotherapy is indicated in patients with early breast cancer, regimens that contain anthracyclines and taxanes are established standard treatments. Gemcitabine has shown promising effects on the respons...

    Authors: Amelie de Gregorio, Lothar Häberle, Peter A. Fasching, Volkmar Müller, Iris Schrader, Ralf Lorenz, Helmut Forstbauer, Thomas W. P. Friedl, Emanuel Bauer, Nikolaus de Gregorio, Miriam Deniz, Visnja Fink, Inga Bekes, Ulrich Andergassen, Andreas Schneeweiss, Hans Tesch…
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:111
  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Arik Drucker, Byong Hoon Yoo, Iman Aftab Khan, Dongsic Choi, Laura Montermini, Xiaoyang Liu, Sanja Jovanovic, Tallal Younis and Kirill V. Rosen
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:110

    The original article was published in Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:105

  34. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) are associated with breast cancer in women at average risk of cancer. Less is known whether these biomarkers also predict risk in women with...

    Authors: Kelsey R. Monson, Mandy Goldberg, Hui-Chen Wu, Regina M. Santella, Wendy K. Chung and Mary Beth Terry
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:109
  35. The BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG founder mutation has been reported in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from multiple Hispanic groups. We aimed to evaluate BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG haplotype diversity in...

    Authors: Anna Marie De Asis Tuazon, Paul Lott, Mabel Bohórquez, Jennyfer Benavides, Carolina Ramirez, Angel Criollo, Ana Estrada-Florez, Gilbert Mateus, Alejandro Velez, Jenny Carmona, Justo Olaya, Elisha Garcia, Guadalupe Polanco-Echeverry, Jacob Stultz, Carolina Alvarez, Teresa Tapia…
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:108
  36. The breast cancer genome dynamically evolves during malignant progression and recurrence. We investigated the genomic profiles of primary early-stage breast cancers and matched relapses to elucidate the molecu...

    Authors: Caterina Fumagalli, Alberto Ranghiero, Sara Gandini, Federica Corso, Sergio Taormina, Elisa De Camilli, Alessandra Rappa, Davide Vacirca, Giuseppe Viale, Elena Guerini-Rocco and Massimo Barberis
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:107
  37. Breast cancer survivors (BCS) may have increased risk of hypothyroidism, but risk according to treatment modality is unclear. We estimated the incidence of hypothyroidism in women with breast cancer, and accor...

    Authors: Anne Mette Falstie-Jensen, Buket Ö. Esen, Anders Kjærsgaard, Ebbe L. Lorenzen, Jeanette D. Jensen, Kristin V. Reinertsen, Olaf M. Dekkers, Marianne Ewertz and Deirdre P. Cronin-Fenton
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:106
  38. ErbB2/HER2 oncoprotein often drives breast cancers (BCs) which are treated with the anti-ErbB2 antibody trastuzumab. The efficacy of trastuzumab-based metastatic BC therapies is routinely assessed by imaging s...

    Authors: Arik Drucker, Byong Hoon Yoo, Iman Aftab Khan, Dongsic Choi, Laura Montermini, Xiaoyang Liu, Sanja Jovanovic, Tallal Younis and Kirill V. Rosen
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:105

    The Correction to this article has been published in Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:110

  39. Systemic inflammation may play a role in shaping breast composition, one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Pubertal development presents a critical window of breast tissue susceptibility to exog...

    Authors: Karin B. Michels, Kristen Keller, Ana Pereira, Claire E. Kim, José L. Santos, John Shepherd, Camila Corvalan and Alexandra M. Binder
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:104
  40. Sunitinib, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that targets multiple receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), was approved for cancer treatment in 2006. However, it was u...

    Authors: Denian Wang, Fei Xiao, Zhongxue Feng, Min Li, Lingmiao Kong, Luping Huang, Yong’gang Wei, Hongyu Li, Fei Liu, Haili Zhang and Wei Zhang
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:103
  41. Breast cancer arises within specific regions in the human breast referred to as the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs). These are relatively dynamic structures characterized by sex hormone driven cyclic epith...

    Authors: Mikkel Morsing, Jiyoung Kim, René Villadsen, Nadine Goldhammer, Abbas Jafari, Moustapha Kassem, Ole William Petersen and Lone Rønnov-Jessen
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:102
  42. A decrease in breast density due to tamoxifen preventive therapy might indicate greater benefit from the drug. It is not known whether mammographic density continues to decline after 1 year of therapy, or whet...

    Authors: Adam R. Brentnall, Ruth Warren, Elaine F. Harkness, Susan M. Astley, Julia Wiseman, Jill Fox, Lynne Fox, Mikael Eriksson, Per Hall, Jack Cuzick, D. Gareth Evans and Anthony Howell
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:101
  43. Exposure to certain outdoor air pollutants may be associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, though potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined whether outdoor air pollution was ass...

    Authors: Nicole M. Niehoff, Alexander P. Keil, Rena R. Jones, Shaoqi Fan, Gretchen L. Gierach and Alexandra J. White
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:100
  44. Well-tolerated and commonly used medications are increasingly assessed for reducing breast cancer risk. These include metformin and statins, both linked to reduced hormone availability and cell proliferation o...

    Authors: Erica J. Lee Argov, Teofilia Acheampong, Mary Beth Terry, Carmen B. Rodriguez, Mariangela Agovino, Ying Wei, Shweta Athilat and Parisa Tehranifar
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:99
  45. Previous cohort studies have reported plasma TK1 activity (pTKa) as a potential prognostic biomarker in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) HER2-negative (HER2−) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In this prospectiv...

    Authors: Luc Cabel, Dan Rosenblum, Florence Lerebours, Etienne Brain, Delphine Loirat, Mattias Bergqvist, Paul Cottu, Anne Donnadieu, Anne Bethune, Nicolas Kiavue, Manuel Rodrigues, Jean-Yves Pierga, Marie-Laure Tanguy and François-Clément Bidard
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:98
  46. Elacestrant is an oral selective estrogen receptor (ER) degrader. This phase 1b open-label, non-randomized study (RAD1901-106) was initiated to determine the effect of elacestrant on the availability of ER in ...

    Authors: Agnes Jager, Elisabeth G. E. de Vries, C. Willemien Menke-van der Houven van Oordt, Patrick Neven, Clasina M. Venema, Andor W. J. M. Glaudemans, Yamei Wang, Rebecca G. Bagley, Maureen G. Conlan and Philippe Aftimos
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:97
  47. Use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer; however, results of epidemiological studies have been mixed. F...

    Authors: Kimberly A. Bertrand, Traci N. Bethea, Hanna Gerlovin, Patricia F. Coogan, Lauren Barber, Lynn Rosenberg and Julie R. Palmer
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:96
  48. Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. We examined how endogenous plasma hormones are associated with average MD area (cm2) and annual MD change (cm2/year).

    Authors: Marike Gabrielson, Shadi Azam, Elina Hardell, Madeleine Holm, Kumari A. Ubhayasekera, Mikael Eriksson, Magnus Bäcklund, Jonas Bergquist, Kamila Czene and Per Hall
    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2020 22:95

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