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  • Oral presentation
  • Open Access

Genetic manipulation of the mammary gland by transplantation

  • P Edwards1
Breast Cancer Research20035(Suppl 1):6

Published: 1 October 2003


Epithelial CellCancer ResearchKnockout MouseMammary GlandLocal Effect

Mammary epithelium can be reconstituted in vivo by transplanting fragments of mammary epithelium, or suspensions of mammary epithelial cells, into the 'cleared' mammary fat pad of a syngeneic recipient mouse. A 'cleared' mammary fat pad is one from which the natural epithelium has been removed at 3 weeks of age. Genes can be introduced into the epithelium before transplantation using retrovirus vectors, or the epithelium can be taken from a knockout mouse [1]. The applications of transplantation, and its advantages and disadvantages compared with transgenesis will be surveyed, including the ability to use hormone-insensitive promoters; to introduce genes into clones of cells rather than whole tissues; the ease of studying early preneoplastic change; and the use of transplantation with transgenic knockouts, to rescue embryonic lethals and to distinguish systemic from local effects [2].

Authors’ Affiliations

Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK


  1. Edwards , et al: J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1996, 1: 75-90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Fantl , et al: . Dev Biol. 1999, 212: 1-11. 10.1006/dbio.1999.9329.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar


© BioMed Central 2003