- Open Access
How many more breast cancer predisposition genes are there?
- Douglas F Easton1
© Current Science Ltd 1999
- Received: 16 July 1999
- Accepted: 22 July 1999
- Published: 1 December 1999
- Breast Cancer
- BRCA2 Mutation
- Familial Risk
- Familial Breast Cancer
- Familial Aggregation
Next year marks the 10th anniversary of the mapping of the breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 to chromosome 17 , and the identification of the TP53 gene as the cause of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome . As a result of these discoveries, and the subsequent discovery of other breast cancer susceptibility genes, notably BRCA2 , inherited susceptibility has risen from relative obscurity to have a central role in breast cancer research. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie the susceptibility genes has become a major research activity, and of course mutation testing is now a major part of clinical genetics practice, with the prospects for improved prevention and treatment of the disease in women at high risk. Thus, it is natural to ask whether there are any more genes to find, what their characteristics might be and how we might go about finding them.
Of the five genes that are, beyond any reasonable doubt, breast cancer predisposition genes, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most important numerically (Table 1). Mutations in these genes, which cause high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, account for almost all the multiple case breast-ovarian cancer families, and probably around 2% of breast cancer cases overall [4,5]. Germline mutations in the TP53 gene predispose to a spectrum of cancers known as the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, including childhood sarcomas and brain tumours, as well as early-onset breast cancer ; and germline mutations in the PTEN gene are responsible for Cowdens syndrome, of which breast cancer is a major feature . Mutations in a fifth gene, the androgen receptor gene, are known to pre-dispose to breast cancer in men .
In addition to the five genes mentioned above, there is good, but not conclusive, evidence for two others. Female relatives of ataxia-telangiectasia patients have been shown in a number of studies [8,9] to be at increased risk of breast cancer (and perhaps of some other cancers), suggesting that heterozygous carriers of mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia gene, ATM, are at increased risk of breast cancer. The results from different studies are reasonably consistent, and are confirmed by direct observation of haplotype sharing in breast cancer cases in relatives of ataxia-telangiectasia patients . The residual doubt lies in the fact that, to date, no studies have demonstrated this association in breast cancer case-control studies . There is also evidence that carriers of a certain class of rare alleles of the HRAS1 minisatellite locus are at increased risk of breast (and other) cancers, the relative risk being approximately two-fold . The doubts that surround this association are that the typing of this locus is technically difficult, and has not been attempted on a sufficiently number of large case-control studies to be really convincing, and that the mechanistic interpretation of this association remains obscure.
So what evidence is there for the existence of any other susceptibility genes? The most direct way to address this question is to ask whether the known genes can explain the observed familial aggregation of breast cancer. Like most other common cancers, breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, with the disease being about twice as common in the mothers, sisters and daughters of cases as it is in the general population [13,14,15,16,17]. This 'familial relative risk' rises to around five-fold for cases aged below 40years . In principle this familial aggregation may be due to either genes or to environmental factors shared within families, but evidence from monozygotic twins of cases (who have approximately twice the risk of first-degree relatives) suggest that genetic factors are mainly responsible . Familial relative risk is a useful measure of overall amount of variation in inherited susceptibility to the disease, and any familial risk 'unexplained' by the known genes provides evidence for other genes .
A number of studies have now tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in population-based series of breast cancer cases, and these allow one to estimate directly the contribution of these genes to familial aggregation, providing there are also good data on family history and an estimate of mutation sensitivity. In the largest study published to date, Peto et al  found a total of 30 mutations in 617 breast cancer patients diagnosed below age 46years. When the family histories of these 30 mutation carriers were examined, it was found that only five of their mothers or sisters had had breast cancer, compared with 64 in the relatives of the 587 noncarriers. After allowing for the number of breast cancers that would be expected at population rates, and assuming a mutation sensitivity of 64% , this would equate to approximately 16% of the observed familial risk being due to BRCA1 and BRCA2. This observation fits well with linkage results derived by the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium . Over 80% of families with six or more cases of breast cancer were found to be linked to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 (even in the absence of ovarian cancer in relatives), but the proportion dropped to 40% in families with four or five cases.
Mutations in the TP53 and PTEN genes are very rare and are probably responsible for less than 1% of familial breast cancer. The importance of ATM can only be assessed indirectly. On the basis of the best available estimates of allele frequency (about 0.002) and relative risk (about fourfold), ATM would be expected to cause a familial relative risk, on its own, of about 1.02, or about 2% of the observed familial risk, although this could possibly be as high as 6 or 7%. On the basis of risks given by Krontiris et al , HRAS1 would be expected to explain a further 4% of the familial risk. Taking all of these effects together, it appears that the known susceptibility genes can only account for around 20-25% of the familial risk.
What types of gene might underlie the remaining 75-80% of familial breast cancer? In principle, it ought to be possible to address this using segregation analysis, based on families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Previous segregation analyses (eg ) were quite successful at identifying a major gene component responsible for a subset of cases, consistent with the effects of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Unfortunately, however, segregation analysis tends to be weak at discrimating models unless there is a clear major gene component. Antoniou et al (personal communication), using mutation and family history data from a large population-based series of breast cancer patients from East Anglia, UK, have shown that a variety of both single gene and polygenic models can give an adequate fit once BRCA1 and BRCA2 are allowed for.
There are several genes involved. The genomic linkage searches that mapped BRCA1 and BRCA2 would have had adequate power to map a third gene, had it been responsible for most or all of the remaining families, but in fact no further loci have emerged. (Linkage to the oestrogen receptor on chromosome 6p  and to chromosome 8p [23,24] have been suggested in some families, but to date these have not been confirmed in other studies.)
There are no further genes with penetrances comparable to those of BRCA1 or BRCA2, or at least if there are, the predisposing mutations in these genes must be very rare. In the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium analysis of Ford et al , there were 78 families with six or more patients breast cancer younger than 60 years old. Of these, all but nine either had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or had clear linkage evidence in favour of one of these loci, and only one (reported by Seitz et al ) actually had strong evidence against linkage to either locus (LODs <-1).
Some of the genes show age-specific effects. The trend in familial relative risk with age, which is consistently observed in epidemiological studies, cannot be accounted for by BRCA1 or BRCA2 alone, and therefore other genes must also confer relative risks that decrease with age. (For this reason, early onset breast cancers remain more informative for both linkage and association studies than late-onset disease.)
A rare recessive gene model is unlikely, because the large population studies give very similar sibling and parent-offspring risks [13,14,15,16,17]. A model involving a gene or genes with common recessive alleles would, however, be quite possible.
The genes do not (on the whole) confer substantial risks of any other cancer. The relatives of breast cancer patients have not been consistently shown to suffer significant risks of any other cancer except ovarian cancer, and this association can be explained by BRCA1 and BRCA2 .
There is some suggestion that lobular breast cancer and lobular carcinoma in situ show bigger familial risks than other histological types of breast cancer [26,27]. This effect does not appear to be due to BRCA1 or BRCA2 so it does suggest that other genes may predispose preferentially to lobular carcinoma . Non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer also tends to be of lower grade than breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and perhaps than 'sporadic' breast cancer as well .
Although the above observations are useful for guiding collection of cases and families, the range of plausible genetic models for the remaining genes is still very wide. At one extreme, there is still room for several genes causing quite substantial relative risks, say 10- to 15-fold. A number of mutations with a combined frequency of 2%, each causing a 10-fold risk of the disease, could adequately explain the familial risks and the many multiple case families not due to BRCA1 or BRCA2. Such a model would be quite plausible given a moderate degree of selection against carriers (for example, if homozygotes were nonviable). Under this model one would expect a substantial degree of allelic heterogeneity, with population-specific mutations, as for BRCA1 or BRCA2. In fact, these genes (which one might expect to call BRCA3, BRCA4, BRCA5, etc) would be qualitatively similar to BRCA1 and BRCA2, but conferring somewhat lower absolute risks (although responsible for a higher fraction of cases overall). One would speculate that they are likely to have inactivating mutations and act as tumour suppressor genes. Such genes ought to be mappable by genetic linkage, providing that the genetic heterogeneity is not too severe. For example, if there were four such genes each responsible for one-quarter of the families, a series of around 400 families with three affected sisters should be sufficient to map them, given a sufficiently dense marker map. This would be a substantial undertaking (at least four-fold larger than the current linkage searches) but would be achievable with international collaboration. Families collected from isolated populations with small numbers of founders, such as French Canadians or Afrikaaners, could be a major advantage here. Such populations are likely to have less genetic heterogeneity, and it may be possible to link families to a common founder, increasing their informativeness.
At the other extreme are 'low-risk' polymorphisms, causing relative risks of less than five-fold. To be of much interest, these polymorphisms need to be quite frequent in the population (hence, we would not normally describe them as 'mutations'). This in turn implies that homozygotes must be viable and that there can be little or no selection against heterozygotes. These polymorphisms are most likely to be single nucleotide polymorphisms leading to amino acid substitutions, although inactivating mutations in nonessential genes (for example, genes coding for certain metabolizing enzymes) and polymorphisms in regulatory sequences may also be important. The human genome contains vast numbers of such polymorphisms; recent surveys suggest around 200 000-400 000 with frequencies of a few percent [29,30], and the majority of genes appear to have at least one polymorphism, so it is reasonable to postulate that a few of these single nucleotide polymorphisms do influence breast cancer risk.
Finding common low-risk polymorphisms related to breast cancer would be almost impossible by linkage analysis, and attention has turned to direct testing in case-control association studies, which are able to detect genes with much lower relative risks. An association study based on 1000 breast cancer cases and 1000 control individuals should be able to detect polymorphisms that cause relative risks as low as 1.5, with allele frequencies of 15% or more. There is room for around 30 such polymorphisms, given the overall familial relative risk of the disease. In this sense, association studies are about one order of magnitude more powerful than linkage studies, which are probably limited to three or four more genes. The total number of polymorphisms related to breast cancer risk could be much larger of course, but polymorphisms with very small effects will not be detectable.
Known or suspected breast cancer genes
Cumulative risk by age†
50 years (%)
70 years (%)
Breast cancer (%)
Familial risk (%)
- Hall JM, Lee MK, Morrow J, et al: Linkage analysis of early onset familial breast cancer to chromosome 17q21. Science . 1990, 250: 1684-1689.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malkin D, Li FP, Strong LC, et al: Germline p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas and other neoplasms. Science. 1990, 250: 1233-1238.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wooster R, Neuhausen S, Mangion J, et al: Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene to chromosome 13q12-q13. Science. 1994, 265: 2088-2090.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ford D, Easton DF, Stratton M, et al: Genetic heterogeneity and Penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. Am J Hum Genet. 1998, 62: 334-345. 10.1086/301749.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peto J, Collins N, Barfoot R, et al: The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations amongst early onset breast cancer cases in the UK. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999, 91: 943-949. 10.1093/jnci/91.11.943.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelen MR, Padberg GW, Peeters EAJ, et al: Localization of the gene for Cowden disease to 10q22-23. Nat Genet. 1996, 13: 114-116.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wooster R, Mangion J, Eeles R, et al: A germline mutation in the androgen receptor in two brothers with breast cancer and Reifenstein Syndrome. Nature Genet. 1992, 2: 132-134.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swift M, Morrell D, Massey RB, Chase CL: Incidence of cancer in 161 families affected by ataxia-telangiectasia. N Engl J Med. 1991, 325: 1831-1836.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Easton DF: Cancer risks in AT heterozygotes [review]. Int J Radiat Biol. 1994, 66 (suppl): S177-S182.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Athma P, Rappaport R, Swift M: Molecular genotyping shows that ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes are predisposed to breast cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1996, 92: 130-134. 10.1016/S0165-4608(96)00328-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- FitzGerald MG, Bean JM, Hegde SR, et al: Heterozygous ATM mutations do not contribute to early onset of breast cancer. Nature Genet. 1997, 15: 307-310.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krontiris TG, Devlin B, Karp DD, Robert NJ, Risch N: An association between the risk of cancer and mutations in the HRAS1 minisatellite locus. N Engl J Med . 1993, 329: 517-523. 10.1056/NEJM199308193290801.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hemminki K, Vaittinen P, Kyyronen P: Age-specific familial risks in common cancers of the offspring. Int J Cancer. 1998, 78: 172-175. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981005)78:2<172::AID-IJC9>3.3.CO;2-V.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peto J, Easton DF, Matthews FE, Ford D, Swerdlow AJ: Cancer mortality in relatives of women with breast cancer: the OPCS study. Int J Cancer. 1996, 65: 275-283. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19960126)65:3<275::AID-IJC1>3.0.CO;2-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Claus EB, Risch NJ, Thompson WD: Age at onset as an indicator of familial risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1990, 131: 961-972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldgar DE, Easton DF, Cannon-Albright LA, Skolnick MH: A systematic population based assessment of cancer risk in first-degree relatives of cancer probands. J Natl Cancer Inst . 1994, 86: 1600-1608.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pharoah P, Day NE, Duffy S, Easton DF, Ponder BAJ: Family history and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 1997, 71: 800-809. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970529)71:5<800::AID-IJC18>3.3.CO;2-R.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Claus EB, Risch NJ, Thompson WD: Using age of onset to distinguish between subforms of breast cancer. Ann Hum Genet. 1990, 54: 169-177.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahlbom A, Lichtenstein P, Malmstrom H, et al: Cancer in twins: genetic and nongenetic familial risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997, 89: 287-293. 10.1093/jnci/89.4.287.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Risch N: Assessing the role of HLA-linked and unlinked determinants of disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1987, 40: 1-14.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD: Genetic analysis of breast cancer in the cancer and steroid hormone study. Am J Hum Genet. 1991, 48: 232-242.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zuppan P, Hall JM, Lee MK, Ponglikitmongkol M, King MC: Possible linkage of the estrogen receptor gene to breast cancer in a family with late-onset disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1991, 48: 1065-1068.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kerangueven F, Essioux L, Dib A, et al: Loss of heterozygosity and linkage analysis in breast-carcinoma: indication for a putative 3rd susceptibility gene on the short arm of chromosome 8. Oncogene. 1995, 10: 1023-1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seitz S, Rohde K, Bender E, et al: Strong indication for a breast cancer susceptibility gene on chromosome 8p12-p22: linkage analysis in German breast cancer families. Oncogene. 1997, 14: 741-743. 10.1038/sj/onc/1200881.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ford D, Easton DF, Peto J: Estimates of the gene frequency of BRCA1, and its contribution to breast and ovarian cancer incidence. Am J Hum Genet. 1995, 57: 1457-1462.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Cannon-Albright LA, Thomas A, Goldgar DE, et al: Familiality of cancer in Utah. Cancer Res. 1994, 54: 2378-2385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD, Carter D: Relationship between breast histopathology and family history of breast cancer. Cancer. 1993, 71: 147-153.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium : The pathology of familial breast cancer: differences between breast cancers in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and sporadic cases. Lancet. 1997, 349: 1505-1510. 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)10109-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haluska MK, Fan J-B, Bentley K, et al: Patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for blood-pressure homeostasis. Nature Genet. 1999, 22: 239-247. 10.1038/10297.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, et al: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nature Genet. 1999, 22: 231-238. 10.1038/10290.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunning AM, Healey CS, Teare MD, Pharoah PDP, Ponder BAJ, Easton DS: A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999,Google Scholar