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Table 1 Comparison of genetic alterations of MDM2 in different genetic backgrounds

From: The role of the ubiquitination-proteasome pathway in breast cancer: Use of mouse models for analyzing ubiquitination processes

MDM2-mutant mice Phenotype (major features) p53-null background E6-AP-null background E6-AP-transgenic background Hypothetical MDM2 pathway Reference
MDM2 null Not viable Viable NR NR p53 dependent [42]
MDM2 transgenic In comparison with p53-/-: Slow rate of tumorigenesis Increased rate of tumorigenesis NR NR p53-independent [43]
  Increased number of sarcomas No changes*     
MDM2 transgenic (mammary gland) Atrophic/dysplastic phenotype of mammary gland No changes* No changes* No changes* p53/E6-AP independent [44, 45]
  Ductal carcinoma (long latency) NR NR NR   
MDM2 transgenic (basal layer epidermidis) Scaly skin with increased thickness of epidermidis NR NR NR p53 dependent [46]
  Altered K14 and K6 expression Normal K14 and K6 expression     
  Increased Ki67 and TUNEL+ cells Normal Ki67 and TUNEL stains     
  Epidermal hyperplasia dysplasia and cancer (long latency) NR     
  1. *No changes detected in the crossed mice in comparison with the MDM2-mutant mice. NR, not reported.