Breast cancers that appear similar by stage and grade are not identical in terms of outcome for each patient affected. Heterogeneity would be better understood using genomic/proteomic profiles to predict for relapse. Risk estimation could be truly individualised and treatment personalised. Proteomics goes beyond possession of an abberrant gene by assessing post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and measuring protein–protein interactions. Optical proteomics uses fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to quantify associations between signalling proteins in tissues beyond the spatial resolution of light microscopy by measuring Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). These technologies improve understanding of how extracellular signals are sensed by cancer cells and transduced to trigger invasion. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is a signalling protein that can oppose apoptosis. The actin-binding protein ezrin provides a direct link between the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane, necessary for cell migration and metastasis. Ezrin–PKCα interaction has been demonstrated in breast cancer cell line experiments .