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Table 3 Associations of NSAID recurrent use with breast cancer, according to characteristics of use (E3N cohort, 2004–2014)

From: Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women

Characteristics of exposure No. of cases HR1 (95% CI) Ptrend2
Cumulative number of DDDs    0.67
 Never/occasional use of NSAIDs 1441 1 (reference)  
 ≤ 200 763 1.02 (0.93–1.12)  
 > 200 to ≤ 400 89 0.93 (0.75–1.16)  
 > 400 to ≤ 600 22 1.28 (0.84–1.95)  
 > 600 43 1.02 (0.75–1.39)  
 Unknown 506 0.96 (0.91–1.13)  
Cumulative duration of use, months   0.92
 Never/occasional use of NSAIDs 1441 1 (reference)  
 ≤ 3 516 1.00 (0.91–1.11)  
 > 3 to ≤ 6 256 1.05 (0.91–1.20)  
 > 6 to ≤ 12 89 1.02 (0.82–1.27)  
 > 12 73 1.03 (0.81–1.31)  
 Unknown 489 0.96 (0.87–1.07)  
Time since first use, years   0.85
 Never/occasional use of NSAIDs 1441 1 (reference)  
 ≤ 4 491 1.00 (0.90–1.11)  
 > 4 to ≤ 6 201 1.07 (0.92–1.25)  
 > 4 to ≤ 8 138 1.04 (0.86–1.25)  
 > 8 249 0.88 (0.76–1.02)  
 Unknown 344 1.01 (0.90–1.14)  
Age at first use, years    0.85
 Never/occasional use of NSAIDs 1441 1 (reference)  
 ≤ 60 461 0.97 (0.86–1.09)  
 > 60 to ≤ 65 292 1.06 (0.93–1.22)  
 > 65 to ≤ 70 215 1.03 (0.88–1.20)  
 > 70 154 1.03 (0.85–1.24)  
 Unknown 301 0.95 (0.83–1.09)  
Time since last use, years   0.79
 Never/occasional use of NSAIDs 1441 1 (reference)  
 Current use 845 1.01 (0.93–1.11)  
 > Current use to ≤ 2 330 1.02 (0.91–1.16)  
 > 2 to ≤ 5 103 0.99 (0.81–1.22)  
 > 5 57 0.85 (0.65–1.11)  
 Unknown 88 0.89 (0.72–1.11)  
Average daily dose    0.18
 Never/occasional use of NSAIDs 1441 1 (reference)  
 ≤ 1 DDD 445 1.03 (0.92–1.14)  
 > 1 to ≤ 1.5 DDD 587 1.02 (0.92–1.13)  
 > 1.5 to ≤ 2 DDDs 200 0.96 (0.83–1.12)  
 > 2 DDDs 55 0.95 (0.73–1.25)  
 Unknown 136 0.90 (0.76–1.08)  
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, DDD defined daily dose, HR hazard ratio, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. 1Adjusted for age (time scale), years of schooling (baseline), alcohol intake (time-varying), body mass index (time-varying), physical activity level (baseline), age at menarche (baseline), parity and age at first birth (baseline), lifetime use of oral contraceptives (baseline), age at menopause (baseline), history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (baseline), personal history of benign breast disease (time-varying), lifetime use of menopausal hormone therapy use (time-varying), and self-report of a mammogram performed during the previous follow-up cycle (time-varying). Categories used are those displayed in Table 1. HRs were obtained from separate models including one characteristic of exposure at a time
  3. 2Tests for linear trends were performed among exposed women with known characteristics of exposure. The characteristics of use were considered as continuous variables