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Table 2 Associations between PM2.5 total mass and terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) counts

From: Outdoor air pollution and terminal duct lobular involution of the normal breast

  All women Premenopausal Postmenopausal
N RRa,b (95% CI) N RRa,b (95% CI) N RRa,b (95% CI)
PM2.5 total mass (μg/m3)
 Quartile 1 477 Ref. 333 Ref. 143 Ref.
 Quartile 2 464 1.17 (1.00, 1.38) 333 1.21 (1.00, 1.45) 126 1.02 (0.72, 1.42)
 Quartile 3 529 1.16 (0.99, 1.37) 337 1.21 (1.00, 1.47) 190 1.06 (0.78, 1.44)
 Quartile 4 434 1.08 (0.92, 1.28) 319 1.04 (0.86, 1.26) 115 1.28 (0.92, 1.78)
 IQR increasec 1,904 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) 1,322 1.05 (1.00, 1.11) 574 1.11 (1.00, 1.23)
  1. PM2.5 total mass concentrations (μg/m3) were estimated by the EPA’s Downscaler Model of fused CMAQ and monitoring data
  2. aAdjusted for age, smoking status, education, race/ethnicity, BMI, and percent of fat on the slide
  3. bFrom a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. Zero model based on same covariates as main model
  4. cIQR increase = 0.5 μg/m3