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Table 4 Absolute changes in body composition parameters, β-hydroxybutyrate, and metabolic hormones

From: Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: III—final results of the KETOCOMP study for breast cancer patients

Fractionation Hypofractionation Normofractionation
Group KD (N = 6) SD (N = 6) p value KD (N = 23) SD (N = 24*) p value
Δ Body weight [kg] − 2.7 ± 1.2 0.7 ± 1.2 0.0043 − 2.9 ± 2.2 0.4 ± 1.3 7.9 × 10−7
Δ Fat mass [kg] − 1.2 ± 0.5 0.1 ± 0.6 0.0087 − 2.3 ± 1.7 0.1 ± 1.3 9.1 × 10−6
Δ Fat free mass [kg] − 1.5 ± 2.4 0.6 ± 1.1 0.065 − 0.6 ± 1.3 0.3 ± 1.2 0.030
Δ Skeletal muscle mass [kg] − 1.1 ± 1.7 0.5 ± 0.7 0.015 − 0.6 ± 0.8 0.1 ± 0.5 0.0012
Δ Phase angle [°] − 0.25 ± 0.82 0.06 ± 0.18 0.75 0.06 ± 0.29 0.05 ± 0.24 1
Δ Extracellular water [l] − 0.2 ± 0.7 0.2 ± 0.3 0.52 − 0.3 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.7 0.033
Δ Intracellular water [l] − 0.9 ± 1.6 0.4 ± 0.6 0.025 − 0.5 ± 0.9 0.1 ± 0.4 0.0040
Δ Total body water [l] − 1.1 ± 1.4 0.6 ± 0.9 0.065 − 0.7 ± 1.1 0.2 ± 0.9 0.010
Δ β-hydroxybutyrate [mmol/l] 0.2 ± 0.2 − 0.03 ± 0.04 0.044 0.6 ± 0.7 0.1 ± 0.5 8.2 × 10−7
Δ Insulin 2.3 ± 7.5 − 1.9 ± 1.7 0.297 − 2.1 ± 5.9 − 0.5 ± 3.3 0.412
Δ IGF-1 − 23.2 ± 45.8 − 28.2 ± 30.9 0.294 − 22.9 ± 61.5 − 9.8 ± 40.9 0.116
Δ T3 − 0.25 ± 0.25 − 0.07 ± 0.05 0.310 − 0.48 ± 0.29 − 0.09 ± 0.38 0.0012
  1. Body composition changes (Δ) from baseline to final measurement according to fractionation schedule which determined the study length. Significant differences between the KD and SD groups are highlighted in bold
  2. *In the SD group, there was one patient with missing estimates at the final measurement except for body weight and phase angle because a wrong height had been inserted into the BIA device. This patient is only used for the calculations of body weight and phase angle changes