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Table 1 Comparison of physical fitness between exercise and usual care groups

From: Aerobic and resistance exercise improves physical fitness, bone health, and quality of life in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline Post-intervention 3-month follow-up Between-group difference post-intervention
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P valuea Mean (SD) P valueb Mean (95% CI) P valuec
Estimated VO2max (mL/kg/min)
 Exercise 23.3 (6.1) 35.1 (8.0) < 0.001 32.1 (8.2) < 0.001 11.8 (25.2 to 16.7) < 0.001
 Usual care 22.7 (6.4) 19.3 (8.5) 0.14
Resting heart rate (bpm)
 Exercise 87.9 (8.0) 77.5 (8.5) < 0.001 76.9 (8.9) < 0.001 −15.4 (−18.1 to −11.7) < 0.001
 Usual care 87.7 (7.7) 88.1 (7.8) 0.67
Leg extension (kgs)
 Exercise 45.4 (10.6) 75.7 (10.8) < 0.001 77.4 (11.5) < 0.001 30.4 (35.9 to 27.8) < 0.001
 Usual care 44.9 (9.1) 42.9 (9.0) 0.15
Leg flexion (kgs)
 Exercise 39.5 (9.6) 63.6 (11.2) < 0.001 62.4 (12.1) < 0.001 24.0 (27.2 to 21.6) < 0.001
 Usual care 40.8 (10.1) 39.7 (10.6) 0.23
Latissimus pulldown (kgs)
 Exercise 30.6 (4.7) 39.0 (6.1) < 0.001 38.5 (6.5) < 0.001 9.6 (11.7 to 6.1) < 0.001
 Usual care 30.3 (4.0) 29.6 (4.4) 0.27
Chest press (kgs)
 Exercise 9.1 (2.3) 20.7 (4.5) < 0.001 19.5 (4.0) < 0.001 11.6 (15.9 to 7.7) < 0.001
 Usual care 9.2 (2.5) 8.7 (2.4) 0.40
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, kgs kilograms
  2. aP value for repeated measures ANOVA comparing changes in the exercise group from baseline to post-intervention, and in the usual care group from baseline to post-intervention
  3. bP value for repeated measures ANOVA comparing changes in the exercise group from baseline to 3-month follow-up
  4. cP value for mixed model analysis comparing changes between the exercise and usual care group from baseline to post-intervention