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Table 2 Association between road traffic noise Lden and incidence of overall breast cancer in 22,466 nurses from Danish Nurse Cohort

From: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of breast cancer: a cohort study

Road traffic noise All breast cancers
N = 1193
Breast cancer with ER and PR status
N = 611
Number of cases Crude modela Adjusted modelb Number of cases Crude modela Adjusted modelb
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Lden 24 years preceding diagnoses
 Linear per 10 dB 1193 1.11 (1.02–1.21)* 1.10 (1.00–1.20)* 611 1.17 (1.04–1.31)* 1.17 (1.02–1.33)*
 Low: < 48 dB 166 1.00 1.00 80 1.00 1.00
 Medium 48–58 dB 675 1.24 (1.04–1.47)* 1.19 (1.00–1.42)* 352 1.35 (1.06–1.73)* 1.28 (0.99–1.65)
 High > 58 dB 352 1.35 (1.12–1.62)* 1.30 (1.07–1.60)* 179 1.45 (1.11–1.89)* 1.42 (1.06–1.89)*
Lden 10 year preceding diagnoses
 Linear per 10 dB 1193 1.08 (1.00–1.16)* 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 611 1.16 (1.04–1.29)* 1.17 (1.04–1.32)*
 Low < 48 dB 195 1.00 1.00 87 1.00 1.00
 Medium 48–58 dB 646 1.19 (1.02–1.40)* 1.16 (0.98–1.37) 343 1.43 (1.13–1.81)* 1.38 (1.08–1.76)*
 High > 58 dB 352 1.25 (1.05–1.49)* 1.21 (1.00–1.46)* 181 1.45 (1.13–1.88)* 1.45 (1.10–1.91)*
Lden 1 year at the year of diagnoses
 Linear per 10 dB 1192 1.08 (1.01–1.17)* 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 610 1.15 (1.04–1.27)* 1.16 (1.04–1.30)*
 Low < 48 dB 202 1.00 1.00 98 1.00 1.00
 Medium 48–58 dB 644 1.25 (1.06–1.46)* 1.22 (1.03–1.43)* 333 1.34 (1.07–1.68)* 1.29 (1.03–1.63)*
 High > 58 dB 346 1.29 (1.09–1.54)* 1.26 (1.04–1.52)* 179 1.39 (1.09–1.78)* 1.39 (1.07–1.81)*
Lden 1 year at the baseline (1993/99)
 Linear per 10 dB 1193 1.05 (.98–1.13) 1.04 (0.96–1.12) 611 1.11 (1.01–1.23)* 1.12 (1.00–1.26)*
 Low < 48 dB 235 1.00 1.00 110 1.00 1.00
 Medium 48–58 dB 648 1.17 (1.01–1.36)* 1.13 (0.97–1.33) 347 1.34 (1.08–1.67)* 1.29 (1.03–1.62)*
 High > 58 dB 310 1.20 (1.01–1.42)* 1.17 0.97–1.41) 154 1.29 (1.01–1.64)* 1.29 (0.98–1.69)
  1. Abbreviations: ER Estrogen receptor, PR Progesterone receptor
  2. aCrude model with age as underlying time scale
  3. bModel adjusted for birth cohort, urbanization (urban, provincial, rural), body mass index (underweight, normal, overweight, obese), leisure time physical activity (low, medium, high), alcohol consumption (low, moderate, heavy), age at menarche (≤ 12 years of age, > 12 years of age), parity (nulliparous, parous), number of births, age at first birth, menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal), use of hormone therapy (never, past, current), use of oral contraceptives (never, ever), and smoking status
  4. *p-value<0.05