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Table 1 Summary of epigenetic modulating proteins with known roles in mammary gland development

From: Epigenomics of mammary gland development

Protein complex or family Members Modification Activating/repressive Role in MG development Reference
DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b DNA methylation Repressive at promoters, activating in gene bodies DNMT1 maintains stem/progenitor cells [33]
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) SUZ2, EED, RBBP4 or RBBP7 and EZH2 or EZH1 H3K27 trimethylation Repressive EZH2 maintains stem/progenitor cells, restricts mature luminal differentiation, and promotes alveolar differentiation. [39, 50, 51]
Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) PCGF BMI1 or MEL18 H2AK119 mono-ubiquitylation Repressive BMI1 maintains stem/progenitor cells and restricts alveolar differentiation [52]
CBX CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7, or CBX8
PHC PHC1, PHC2, or PHC3
SCML SCMH1 or SCML2
RING RING2 or RING1
Lysine demethylase (KDM) proteins JARID1B/KDM5B/PLU-1 H3K4Me3 demethylation Repressive and activating GATA3 cofactor, promotes luminal differentiation [55, 57,58,59]
JMJD2B/KDM4B H3K9Me3 demethylation Activating ERα cofactor, promotes luminal differentiation [61]
KDM6A/UTX H3K27Me3 demethylation Activating Luminal transcription factor co-factor, promotes luminal differentiation [62]
Plant homeodomain (PHD)-containing proteins Pygo2 Binds to H3K4Me3 Not applicable β-catenin co-factor, maintains stem/progenitor cells by restricting Notch-mediated luminal differentiation [65]
Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins BRD4 Binds to acetylated lysines on histones Activating FOXO1 cofactor, maintains basal epithelial phenotype [76]