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Table 3 Associations of PM2.5 and O3 with breast density, stratified by body mass index, family history of breast cancer, and menopausal status/postmenopausal hormone use

From: Association between air pollution and mammographic breast density in the Breast Cancer Surveilance Consortium

  Pollutant quartilea PM2.5 (ug/m3) O3 (ppb)
Analytical strata BI-RADS I OR (95% CI) BI-RADS III OR (95% CI) BI-RADS IV OR (95% CI) BI-RADS I OR (95% CI) BI-RADS III OR (95% CI) BI-RADS IV OR (95% CI)
BMI <30b
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 1.01 (0.96–1.06) 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 0.88 (0.84–0.92) 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 1.15 (1.11–1.20) 1.10 (1.04–1.16)
3rd 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 1.16 (1.13–1.20) 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.87 (0.79–0.96) 1.14 (1.09–1.20) 1.02 (0.94–1.10)
4th 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 1.16 (1.12–1.20) 0.94 (0.89–0.99) 1.12 (1.01–1.25) 1.02 (0.96–1.07) 0.85 (0.78–0.93)
BMI ≥30b
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 0.91 (0.86–0.95) 1.16 (1.10–1.22) 1.20 (1.02–1.41) 0.78 (0.73–0.84) 1.07 (1.01–1.12) 1.03 (0.88–1.21)
3rd 0.79 (0.75–0.84) 1.27 (1.20–1.33) 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 0.84 (0.76–0.93) 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 0.94 (0.73–1.20)
4th 0.85 (0.81–0.91) 1.27 (1.20–1.34) 1.09 (0.91–1.30) 1.13 (1.02–1.25) 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 0.62 (0.46–0.82)
Premenopausalc
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 0.92 (0.85–0.99) 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 1.17 (1.09–1.26) 1.16 (1.06–1.26)
3rd 0.82 (0.74–0.91) 1.25 (1.19–1.32) 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 0.82 (0.67–1.00) 1.25 (1.14–1.37) 1.16 (1.03–1.32)
4th 0.86 (0.77–0.96) 1.20 (1.13–1.26) 0.97 (0.89–1.05) 1.04 (0.84–1.28) 1.21 (1.10–1.33) 0.99 (0.86–1.13)
Postmenopausal/no HRTc
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 0.94 (0.91–0.98) 1.08 (1.05–1.12) 0.90 (0.84–0.97) 0.85 (0.80–0.90) 1.10 (1.06–1.14) 1.06 (0.99–1.13)
3rd 0.83 (0.79–0.87) 1.15 (1.11–1.19) 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 0.83 (0.77–0.90) 1.05 (0.99–1.11) 0.87 (0.78–0.98)
4th 0.88 (0.84–0.92) 1.21 (1.17–1.25) 1.01 (0.94–1.09) 1.11 (1.02–1.21) 0.88 (0.83–0.94) 0.69 (0.61–0.79)
Postmenopausal/with HRTc
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 0.98 (0.87–1.10) 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 0.90 (0.77–1.06) 1.21 (1.12–1.30) 1.04 (0.91–1.19)
3rd 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 1.29 (1.20–1.39) 1.08 (0.95–1.24) 0.86 (0.70–1.07) 1.19 (1.06–1.33) 1.08 (0.87–1.33)
4th 1.00 (0.87–1.14) 1.15 (1.06–1.24) 0.96 (0.83–1.10) 1.02 (0.81–1.30) 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 0.80 (0.62–1.03)
Perimenopausalc
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 0.97 (0.74–1.28) 0.98 (0.83–1.15) 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 0.83 (0.54–1.27) 0.94 (0.78–1.14) 0.93 (0.70–1.23)
3rd 1.06 (0.79–1.41) 1.16 (0.98–1.37) 1.03 (0.79–1.34) 0.95 (0.54–1.65) 0.89 (0.68–1.17) 0.75 (0.48–1.16)
4th 0.95 (0.69–1.30) 1.34 (1.12–1.60) 1.07 (0.80–1.42) 1.29 (0.72–2.31) 0.76 (0.56–1.03) 0.62 (0.38–1.02)
No Family history of breast cancerd
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 0.93 (0.89–0.97) 1.08 (1.05–1.12) 0.90 (0.85–0.94) 0.87 (0.82–0.92) 1.12 (1.09–1.16) 1.10 (1.04–1.16)
3rd 0.83 (0.80–0.87) 1.20 (1.16–1.23) 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.85 (0.79–0.92) 1.11 (1.06–1.16) 0.99 (0.91–1.07)
4th 0.87 (0.83–0.91) 1.21 (1.17–1.25) 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 1.11 (1.03–1.21) 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
Family history of breast cancerd
  1st Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
2nd 1.05 (0.96–1.14) 1.05 (0.99–1.12) 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.79 (0.70–0.90) 1.15 (1.08–1.24) 1.02 (0.90–1.14)
3rd 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 1.17 (1.10–1.24) 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 1.15 (1.04–1.28) 1.02 (0.85–1.22)
4th 0.93 (0.84–1.03) 1.12 (1.05–1.20) 1.05 (0.94–1.18) 1.13 (0.94–1.35) 1.01 (0.90–1.13) 0.77 (0.63–0.94)
  1. aQuartiles defined as <7.91, 7.91 to <8.81, 8.81 to <9.86, and ≥9.86 ug/m3 for particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and <29.73, 29.73 to <36.05, 36.05 to <37.92 and ≥37.92 ppb for ozone (O3). bAdjusted for age at mammogram, race, study site, age at menarche, parity and age at first birth, menopausal status/hormone use, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and median household income for the zip code. cAdjusted for age at mammogram, body mass index (BMI) at mammogram, race, study site, age at menarche, parity and age at first birth, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and median household income for the zip code
  2. dAdjusted for age at mammogram, BMI at mammogram, race, study site, age at menarche, parity and age at first birth, menopausal status/hormone use, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and median household income for the zip code. American College of Radiology’s Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) II (scattered fibroglandular densities) is the reference group. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio. P values for two-way interactions: PM2.5 with BMI p < 0.01; PM2.5 with menopausal status/hormone replacement therapy (HRT) p = 0.02; PM2.5 with family history of breast cancer p = 0.21; O3 with BMI p < 0.0001; O3 with menopausal status/HRT p < 0.0001; O3 with family history of breast cancer p = 0.56