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Table 2 Associations between nighttime eating behavior and breast cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women

From: Nighttime eating and breast cancer among Chinese women in Hong Kong

Variables Case participants
(n = 922)
Controls
(n = 913)
ORa
(95% CI)
ORb
(95% CI)
ORc
(95% CI)
P valued
Nighttime eating after 10 p.m.
 Nevere 762 (82.6) 774 (84.8) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)  
 Ever 160 (17.4) 139 (15.2) 1.31 (1.02–1.68) 1.51 (1.08–2.12) 1.50 (1.06–2.12) 0.02
Meal type
 Nevere 762 (82.6) 774 (84.8) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)  
 Staple food 123 (13.3) 86 (9.4) 1.65 (1.22–2.22) 2.16 (1.43–3.28) 2.16 (1.42–3.29) <0.001
 Snacks 37 (4.0) 53 (5.8) 0.75 (0.48–1.15) 0.75 (0.44–1.29) 0.74 (0.43–1.27) 0.27
Food type
 Nevere 762 (82.6) 774 (84.8) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)  
 Noodles 70 (7.6) 40 (4.4) 1.93 (1.29–2.90) 2.78 (1.58–4.87) 2.79 (1.58–4.94) <0.001
 Rice 62 (6.7) 37 (4.1) 1.90 (1.24–2.91) 2.53 (1.40–4.47) 2.58 (1.42–4.69) 0.002
 Baked goods 30 (3.3) 37 (4.1) 0.88 (0.54–1.44) 1.27 (0.71–2.28) 1.19 (0.66–2.16) 0.56
 Meat 31 (3.4) 23 (2.9) 1.48 (0.85–2.57) 1.89 (0.92–3.88) 1.73 (0.84–3.59) 0.14
 Vegetable 24 (2.6) 22 (2.4) 1.09 (0.76–2.11) 1.15 (0.67–2.67) 1.14 (0.63–2.55) 0.61
 Fruit 15 (1.6) 13 (1.4) 1.22 (0.58–2.59) 1.18 (0.51–2.74) 1.20 (0.51–2.83) 0.68
  1. aAdjusted for age at interview. bAdjusted for age at interview, age at menarche, age at first birth, body mass index (BMI), history of cancer in a first-degree family member and shift work. cAdjusted for age at interview, age at menarche, age at first birth, BMI, history of cancer in a first-degree family member, shift work and other dietary factors (consumption of cereals, deep-fried foods, preserved meats and dairy products). d P values from model 3. eThose who did not have habitual nighttime eating behavior. P values in italics are statistically significant. ref reference