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Table 3 Relative risk of breast cancer in relation to participant’s age at death of parent, Breakthrough Generations Study

From: Psychological stress, adverse life events and breast cancer incidence: a cohort investigation in 106,000 women in the United Kingdom

   Oestrogen receptor status of breast cancer
  All cases Positive Negative
Factor No. of cases Adjusted RR (95% CI)(a) No. of Cases Adjusted RR (95% CI)(a) No. of cases Adjusted RR (95% CI)(a)
All mothers       
Mother deceased       
No 916 1.00 700 1.00 146 1.00
Yes 867 0.99 (0.89-1.10) 690 1.00 (0.89-1.13) 121 0.96 (0.72-1.27)
  Age of participant at mother’s death, years       
  <20 75 1.31 (1.02-1.67) 55 1.21 (0.89-1.61) 13 1.67 (0.93-2.98)
  20-29 91 1.02 (0.82-1.27) 72 1.04 (0.81-1.33) 13 1.01 (0.57-1.80)
  30-39 178 1.07 (0.91-1.27) 135 1.04 (0.86-1.26) 26 1.09 (0.71-1.68)
  40-49 221 0.88 (0.75-1.03) 187 0.95 (0.80-1.13) 23 0.62 (0.39-0.99)
  ≥50 302 0.94 (0.81-1.10) 241 0.96 (0.81-1.14) 46 1.01 (0.68-1.49)
   P trend=0.059   P trend=0.22   P trend=0.46
Mothers who did not have breast or ovarian cancer       
Mother deceased       
No 790 1.00 603 1.00 128 1.00
Yes 633 0.94 (0.83-1.07) 507 0.98 (0.85-1.13) 88 0.82 (0.60-1.13)
  Age of participant at mother’s death, years       
  <20 41 1.17 (0.85-1.61) 29 1.05 (0.72-1.55) 7 1.35 (0.62-2.92)
  20-29 54 1.04 (0.78-1.38) 43 1.07 (0.78-1.47) 7 0.86 (0.40-1.86)
  30-39 119 1.05 (0.86-1.29) 92 1.05 (0.84-1.32) 16 0.92 (0.54-1.57)
  40-49 173 0.86 (0.72-1.03) 150 0.98 (0.80-1.19) 16 0.50 (0.28-0.87)
  ≥50 246 0.89 (0.75-1.05) 193 0.90 (0.75-1.09) 42 0.98 (0.65-1.49)
   P trend=0.046   P trend=0.19   P trend=0.86
All fathers       
Father deceased       
No 730 1.00 568 1.00 104 1.00
Yes 1053 0.95 (0.85-1.06) 822 0.92 (0.81-1.04) 163 1.23 (0.92-1.65)
  Age of participant at father’s death, years       
  <20 105 0.94 (0.76-1.16) 80 0.88 (0.69-1.12) 18 1.37 (0.82-2.30)
  20-29 163 0.96 (0.81-1.15) 133 0.98 (0.80-1.19) 22 1.12 (0.69-1.80)
  30-39 259 0.92 (0.79-1.06) 205 0.90 (0.76-1.07) 37 1.08 (0.72-1.61)
  40-49 326 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 257 0.98 (0.83-1.15) 49 1.30 (0.89-1.90)
  ≥50 200 0.91 (0.77-1.09) 147 0.82 (0.67-1.00) 37 1.50 (0.97-2.31)
   P trend=0.97   P trend=0.56   P trend=0.40
  1. RR relative risk, CI confidence interval
  2. (a) Analyses adjusted for attained age, age at menarche, age at first birth and parity, cumulative duration of breast feeding, oral contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormone use, benign breast disease, BMI at age 20, postmenopausal BMI and time-updated menopausal status, height, physical activity, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, family history of breast cancer and socioeconomic status