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Table 5 Adjusted hazard ratios for the associations between strenuous recreational physical activity and invasive breast cancer subtypes among menopausal hormone therapy users

From: Recreational physical activity and risk of triple negative breast cancer in the California Teachers Study

  Cases, no. Strenuous RPA, h/wk/y P trend P homogeneity of trends
  ≤0.50 0.51–3.50 ≥3.51
  Adjusted HR (95 % CI) Adjusted HR (95 % CI) Adjusted HR (95 % CI)   
TNBC (ER-/PR-/HER2-)
 Long-terma
  Type of MHT use       
   E only 47 Referent 0.80 (0.43–1.48) 0.63 (0.23–1.71) 0.34 0.29
   E + P 108 Referent 0.99 (0.64–1.52) 1.12 (0.61–2.08) 0.71  
  Duration of MHT use       
   <5 years 80 Referent 0.98 (0.60–1.62) 1.09 (0.55–2.19) 0.80 0.53
   ≥5 years 75 Referent 0.87 (0.53–1.42) 0.81 (0.37–1.75) 0.57  
  Cessation of MHT use       
   Former MHT use 24 Referent 1.00 (0.42–2.38) 0.81 (0.22–3.02) 0.77 0.81
   Recent MHT use 131 Referent 0.91 (0.61–1.34) 0.98 (0.55–1.74) 0.92  
 Baselineb
  Type of MHT use       
   E only 47 Referent 0.93 (0.47–1.87) 0.89 (0.31–2.56) 0.80 0.60
   E + P 108 Referent 0.98 (0.63–1.52) 0.58 (0.26–1.28) 0.20  
  Duration of MHT use       
   <5 years 80 Referent 1.00 (0.61–1.66) 0.46 (0.16–1.28) 0.17 0.40
   ≥5 years 75 Referent 0.93 (0.54–1.60) 0.90 (0.40–2.02) 0.76  
  Cessation of MHT use       
   Former MHT use 24 Referent 0.58 (0.20–1.72) 0.35 (0.05–2.64) 0.21 0.30
   Recent MHT use 131 Referent 1.05 (0.70–1.56) 0.73 (0.37–1.44) 0.43  
Luminal A-like (ER+ or PR+ plus HER2-)
 Long-terma       
  Type of MHT use       
   E only 375 Referent 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 0.84 (0.60–1.17) 0.31 0.75
   E + P 931 Referent 0.89 (0.77–1.02) 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.32  
  Duration of MHT use       
   <5 years 580 Referent 0.81 (0.67–0.97) 0.90 (0.70–1.16) 0.41 0.89
   ≥5 years 726 Referent 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.26  
  Cessation of MHT use       
   Former MHT use 171 Referent 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 0.52 (0.30–0.89) 0.02 0.03
   Recent MHT use 1135 Referent 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 0.59  
 Baselineb
  Type of MHT use       
   E only 375 Referent 0.82 (0.63–1.06) 0.94 (0.67–1.32) 0.49 0.65
   E + P 931 Referent 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 0.98 (0.79–1.21) 0.75  
  Duration of MHT use       
   <5 years 580 Referent 0.91 (0.75–1.11) 0.86 (0.65–1.14) 0.24 0.29
   ≥5 years 726 Referent 0.92 (0.77–1.10) 1.05 (0.83–1.33) 0.83  
  Cessation of MHT use       
   Former MHT use 171 Referent 0.96 (0.67–1.36) 0.44 (0.22–0.87) 0.02 0.02
   Recent MHT use 1135 Referent 0.92 (0.79–1.06) 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 0.84  
  1. Results are for 39,715 peri- and postmenopausal women who had ever used MHT with known information regarding type, duration and cessation of MHT use at baseline. HRs are from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models using age (in days) as the time metric and stratified by age (in years) with the adjustment for race, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, combined age at first full-term pregnancy and parity variable, BMI at baseline, history of smoking, alcohol intake during the past year of baseline, screening mammogram in the past 2 years of baseline, history of a breast biopsy, and a corresponding moderate RPA variable; additionally, type of MHT, duration of MHT, and cessation of MHT were mutually adjusted
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, E estrogen, ER estrogen receptor, HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HR hazard ratio, h/wk/y hour/week/year, MHT menopausal hormone therapy, P progestin, PR progesterone receptor, RPA recreational physical activity, TNBC triple negative breast cancer
  3. aRPA from high school till age 54 or age at cohort entry, whichever was younger
  4. bRPA during the 3 years prior to baseline