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Table 4 Baseline and 16-week differences in serum sex hormones and treatment effects between study groups

From: Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

  Baseline geometric mean Geometric mean at 16 wk Change at 16 wk, % TERa (95 % CI), intervention vs control P value* TERa (95 % CI), mainly exercise vs diet P value**
Oestradiol (pg/ml)        
  Control 3.89 4.01 3.11     
  Diet 4.20 3.62 −13.8 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 0.025   
  Mainly exercise 3.69 3.22 −12.7 0.83 (0.73–0.95) 0.007 0.97 (0.87–1.08) 0.562
Oestrone (pg/ml)        
  Control 20.1 20.4 1.51     
  Diet 20.4 20.1 −1.26 0.98 (0.88–1.08) 0.650   
  Mainly exercise 19.9 18.5 −6.67 0.92 (0.82–1.02) 0.109 0.94 (0.86–1.02) 0.154
Free oestradiol (pg/ml)        
  Control 0.09 0.10 3.23     
  Diet 0.10 0.08 −17.7 0.80 (0.70–0.92) 0.002   
  Mainly exercise 0.09 0.07 −19.1 0.77 (0.67–0.88) <0.001 0.96 (0.85–1.07) 0.425
Testosterone (pg/ml)        
  Control 194 186 −4.07     
  Diet 197 189 −3.76 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.886   
  Mainly exercise 186 172 −7.63 0.96 (0.87–1.05) 0.332 0.95 (0.88–1.02) 0.166
Androstenedione (pg/ml)        
  Control 575 560 −2.60     
  Diet 562 537 −4.50 0.97 (0.85–1.12) 0.684   
  Mainly exercise 573 488 −14.7 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.059 0.90 (0.80–1.01) 0.064
Free testosterone (pg/ml)        
  Control 2.71 2.61 −3.90     
  Diet 2.53 2.25 −11.2 0.91 (0.83–1.01) 0.069   
  Mainly exercise 2.44 2.01 −17.7 0.84 (0.76–0.93) 0.001 0.92 (0.85–0.99) 0.043
SHBG (nmol/L)        
  Control 44.2 44.0 −0.30     
  Diet 50.7 57.1 12.6 1.14 (1.07–1.23) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 49.3 58.6 19.0 1.21 (1.12–1.30) <0.001 1.05 (1.00–1.12) 0.070
  1. Baseline and follow-up measurements of complete cases (i.e., women with both baseline and follow-up measurements) are presented. Complete case data of oestradiol were available for 223 women; oestrone for 221 women; free oestradiol for 222 women; testosterone and androstenedione for 229 women; free testosterone for 228 women; and SHBG for 230 women
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, SHBG sex hormone-binding hormone, TER treatment effect ratio
  3. *P < 0.025 was considered significant for the comparison of both intervention groups vs control
  4. **P < 0.05 was considered significant for the comparison mainly exercise vs diet
  5. aTER represents the overall intervention effect on hormone change (adjusted for baseline), estimated by linear regression analysis. Because the linear regression models were based on log-transformed hormone data, the presented treatment effect is the antilogarithm of the original estimate. Therefore, the TER is a ratio that indicates how many times the level in one group is higher (TER >1) or lower (TER <1) than a reference group. For example, TER intervention vs control of 0.9 indicates that the hormone level in the intervention group is, on average, 10 % lower than in the control group