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Table 6 Tea consumption and risk of breast cancer a

From: Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study

Daily tea intake Total No intake Low intake b Moderately low intake b Moderately high intake b High intake b P trend c Per 100 mls
Number of participants 299890 99667 58966 54485 52280 34492   
Number of breast cancers 9344 3043 1704 1738 1680 1179   
Premenopausal breast cancers         
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)d   0.90 (0.73-1.12) 1.00 0.98 (0.80-1.21) 0.97 (0.79-1.20) 0.98 (0.77-1.26) 0.624 1.00 (0.98-1.03)
Postmenopausal cancers 8407 2771 1486 1566 1510 1074   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)e   0.99 (0.92-1.06) 1.00 1.00 (0.93-1.08) 0.98 (0.91-1.06) 0.95 (0.88-1.03) 0.375 1.00 (0.99-1.00)
ER+ and PR+ subtype 2817 903 496 477 543 398   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)f   1.03 (0.91-1.15) 1.00 0.98 (0.86-1.11) 1.05 (0.93-1.19) 1.02 (0.89-1.17) 0.866 1.00 (0.99-1.02)
ER- and PR- subtype 959 268 177 182 180 152   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)g   1.12 (0.91-1.38) 1.00 0.99 (0.80-1.22) 1.03 (0.83-1.27) 1.12 (0.89-1.42) 0.941 1.00 (0.98-1.02)
Analysis by cohort-wide intake         
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)h   0.91 (0.74-1.13) 1.00 1.04 (0.85-1.27) 0.94 (0.75-1.17) 0.97 (0.75-1.25) 0.770 1.00 (0.98-1.03)
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)i   1.01 (0.93-1.09) 1.00 1.01 (0.94-1.10) 1.01 (0.93-1.10) 0.99 (0.91-1.08) 0.998 1.00 (0.99-1.00)
  1. aIncludes 299890 participants, following exclusion of participants from Norway where data on tea intake is not available. bCut-off points are based on country specific quartiles of tea intake after exclusion of non-tea consumers. c P for trend is computed by entering the categories as a continuous term (score variable: 0,1,2,3,4) in the Cox model. dIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers (that is, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 50 years), and participants who were premenopausal at recruitment. Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, coffee intake. eIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers (excluding participants with premenopausal breast cancers). Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, menopausal status at recruitment, ever use of postmenopausal hormones, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, coffee intake. fHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. gHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor negative postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. hIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers. Using tea intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 4. iIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers. Using tea intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 5. CI, confidence interval, ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.