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Table 1 Ubiquitin-specific proteases overexpressed in breast cancer

From: Ubiquitin-specific proteases as therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer

Deubiquitinase Upregulated/downregulated Breast cancer context Implicated signaling References
USP9X Upregulated Human ductal carcinomas TGFβ signaling [23],[42],[43]
  Upregulated Human breast cancer tissue as compared with the adjacent normal tissue   
USP15 Upregulated Tissue microarray of 23 breast tumors TGFβ signaling [21],[32]
USP32 Upregulated Copy number alterations in ER + human breast tumors,   
   50% (nine of 18) of breast cancer cell lines and 22% (nine of 41) of primary breast tumors compared with mammary epithelial cells.   [34],[35]
   USP32–CCDC49 expressed fusion gene in ER+, tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30   
USP9y, USP10, USP25 Upregulated Human breast cancer tissue as compared with the adjacent normal tissue   [42]
USP4 Upregulated KD inhibits EMT, cell migration, invasion and metastasis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in zebrafish xenograft metastasis model TGFβ signaling [22]
USP11 Upregulated KD inhibits TGFβ-induced EMT in normal mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG) TGFβ signaling [20]
  1. ER+, estrogen receptor-positive; EMT, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; KD, knockdown; TGFβ, transforming growth factor beta; USP, ubiquitin-specific protease.
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