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Table 3 Summary of transforming growth factor-β1-mediated Smad signaling and effect on S-phase in vitro

From: Induction by transforming growth factor-β1 of epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a rare event in vitro

  TGF-β1-mediated responsea
     S-phase (% of control ± standard error)
Cell strain Increase in phosphorylated Smad2b Decrease in total Smad2c Decrease in total Smad3c [3H]Td Flowe
HEK + - - 2 ± 0.3 72 ± 9
HaCaT + + + 50 ± 4 86 ± 11
SCC012 + + + 63 ± 2 89 ± 2
SCCO28 + - + 95 ± 1 105 ± 3
UNC10 + + + 82 ± 5 96 ± 1
HMEC 1012 + - + 13 ± 6 47 ± 6
HMEC 1016 -* - + 35 ± 0.4 70 ± 2
HBL100 -* - - 87 ± 5 103 ± 3
MCF10A -* - - 46 ± 5 78 ± 8
BT549 + + + 74 ± 3 N/Ag
MCF7 - - - 59 ± 3 81 ± 4
MDA-MB-231 + + + 60 ± 1 83 ± 0.1
MDA-MB-361 - + - 95 ± 3 98 ± 2
MDA-MB-435S - + - 95 ± 4 96 ± 3
MDA-MB-436 -* - + 99 ± 1 98 ± 8
MDA-MB-468 + - - 96 ± 4 98 ± 1
A549 + - + 72 ± 4 96 ± 9
H1299 -* + - 101 ± 4 107 ± 3
Colo357 + + -f 82 ± 7 69 ± 5
Panc-1 + - - 92 ± 4 95 ± 6
DU145 + - - 68 ± 4 83 ± 8
MK -* - - 19 ± 2 38 ± 7
KC + - - 11 ± 3 27 ± 4
NMuMG + + - 8 ± 1 17 ± 1
EpH4 + + + 55 ± 0.4 84 ± 4
4T1 + + + 80 ± 6 91 ± 1
MCT -* + - 24 ± 3 87 ± 8
  1. aTreatment with 5 ng/ml transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for 48 hours. bSimilar results obtained after 2 hours TGF-β1 treatment except those designated by an asterisk (detected increased phosphorylated Smad2 after 2 hours of TGF-β1 treatment). cNo decrease in total Smad2 or total Smad3 was detected after 2 hours of TGF-β1 treatment. d [3H]Thymidine ([3H]T) experiments performed at least three times with 6–12 replicates. Results are presented as the average percent of control of three independent experiments. eFlow cytometry experiments performed at least three times in triplicate. Results are presented as the average percent of control of three independent experiments. fAn increase in total Smad3 was observed in Colo357 cells 48 hours after TGF-β1 treatment. gAccurate flow cytometry analysis could not be performed on BT549 cells because multiple populations of cells were present in the culture. Cellular responses to TGF-β1 designated as + (positive response) or - (negative response). HEK, human epidermal keratinocyte; HMEC, human mammary epithelial cell; KC, mouse keratinocytes transformed with K-ras; MK, mouse keratinocyte.