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Table 5 Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for hormone therapy treatment assignment, and for a doubling of baseline sex hormone and for a doubling from baseline to year 1 of sex hormone values in the Women’s Health Initiative postmenopausal hormone therapy trials

From: Sex hormone associations with breast cancer risk and the mediation of randomized trial postmenopausal hormone therapy effects

  Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
  CEE + MPA trial* CEE trial*
  Baseline only† Baseline + year 1† Baseline only Baseline + year 1
Treatment 1.58 (1.13, 2.22) 1.46 (0.86, 2.47) 0.62 (0.40, 0.96) 0.84 (0.43, 1.65)
Baseline:     
  Bioavailable estradiol 1.41 (1.03, 1.93) 1.44 (1.03, 2.01) 1.31 (0.93, 1.84) 1.24 (0.86, 1.79
  SHBG* 1.11 (0.83, 1.50) 1.13 (0.83, 1.53) 0.67 (0.47, 0.97) 0.64 (0.44, 0.83)
Baseline to year 1 change:     
  Bioavailable estradiol   1.05 (0.81, 1.36)   0.87 (0.62, 1.23)
  SHBG   1.04 (0.76, 1.43)   0.85 (0.57, 1.26)
Cases/controls 254/291 254/291 161/191 161/191
  CEE + MPA trial CEE trial
  Baseline only Baseline + year 1 Baseline only Baseline + year 1
Treatment 1.59 (1.10, 2.30) 1.65 (0.92, 2.97) 0.71 (0.43, 1.15) 0.92 (0.41, 2.09)
Baseline:     
  Estradiol 1.22 (0.71, 1.76) 1.22 (0.71, 2.08) 1.56 (0.90, 2.71) 1.87 (0.97, 3.62)
  Estrone 1.28 (0.82, 2.01) 1.20 (0.72, 2.02) 0.78 (0.43, 1.40) 0.57 (0.29, 1.12)
  Estrone sulfate 0.95 (0.69, 1.30) 0.93 (0.66, 1.31) 1.09 (0.69, 1.73) 1.25 (0.76, 2.05)
  SHBG 0.92 (0.69, 1.23) 0.92 (0.67, 1.25) 0.56 (0.38, 0.83) 0.60 (0.39, 0.90)
Baseline to year 1 change:     
  Estradiol   1.11 (0.79, 1.56)   1.18 (0.71, 1.96)
  Estrone   0.95 (0.65, 1.39)   0.57 (0.35, 0.95)
  Estrone sulfate   0.94 (0.65, 1.37)   1.50 (0.91, 2.48)
  SHBG   1.00 (0.66, 1.50)   1.00 (0.56, 1.79)
Cases/controls 230/248 230/248 147/151 147/151
  1. *CEE + MPA, conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate; CEE, conjugated equine estrogens; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.
  2. For each trial the left column gives odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals when only baseline variables are included, while the right column adds corresponding year 1 variables in the analysis. Hormone therapy mediation is indicated by treatment odds ratios that move substantially toward the null when the year 1 sex hormone data are included.