Longitudinal sampling and enhanced biobanks. The longitudinal collection of blood and samples from normal breasts, primary cancers and relapsed/metastatic/treatment-resistant disease is essential in order to address the origins, heterogeneity and evolution of breast cancers. Samples are required from as broad a patient population as possible to understand ethnic, age-related and gender differences in incidence, molecular subtypes, prognosis and response to treatment. Sequential samples (ideally patient-matched) from primary tumours and metastases will enable detailed studies of tumour evolution/progression and provide material for generating new cell lines and patient-derived xenografts for translational research. Multimodality imaging and metabolomic analyses will add further dimensions of valuable information. Based on a figure provided courtesy of Professor William Gallagher, with thanks to Dr Rut Klinger (UCD Conway Institute).