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Table 4 Change in hormone level per kilogram weight change over 18 months, overall and by race

From: Sex hormone changes during weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese postmenopausal African-American and non-African-American women

Hormone Overall (n= 278) African-American (n= 105) Non-African-American (n= 173) P-interaction by race
  % Δ/kg Pvalue % Δ/kg Pvalue % Δ/kg Pvalue  
Estrone (pg/ml) 1.0 <0.0001 0.6 0.03 1.2 <0.0001 0.10
Estradiol (pg/ml) 1.6 <0.0001 1.1 <0.0001 1.9 <0.0001 0.04
Testosterone (ng/dl) 0.2 0.22 -0.02 0.95 0.3 0.15 0.30
Androstenedione (pg/ml) -0.2 0.19 -0.2 0.44 -0.2 0.18 1.0
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (μg/dl) 0.4 0.07 0.5 0.14 0.2 0.36 0.5
Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/l) -1.3 <0.0001 -0.9 <0.0001 -1.6 <0.0001 0.006
Free estradiol (pg/ml) 1.9 <0.0001 1.4 <0.0001 2.1 <0.0001 0.01
Free testosterone (pg/ml) 0.8 <0.0001 0.5 0.05 1.0 <0.0001 0.07
  1. Generalized estimating equations models using the combined data across all phases of the logarithm of each hormone regressed on weight (kg) adjusted for race, age, physical activity, and phase. For example, overall estradiol increases 1.6% per kilogram of weight gain or decreases 1.6% per kilogram of weight loss. In African Americans, losing 1 kg means estradiol decreases 1.1% or gaining 1 kg means estradiol increases 1.1%; while in non-African Americans, losing or gaining 1 kg means estradiol decreases 1.9% or increases 1.9% respectively. The interaction or differences in percentage change (% Δ) in estradiol concentration by race is statistically significant (P-interaction = 0.04).
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