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Table 4 Absolute dense breast volume differences associated with difference in anthropometric and body composition measures

From: Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

  Unadjusteda Adjustedb Also adjusted for childhood or young adult BMIc
  % Diff 95% CI Pvalue R 2d % Diff 95% CI Pvalue R 2 % Diff 95% CI Pvalue R 2
Adult anthropometric measures           
   Height (cm) -8.9 -22.2, 6.8 0.25 0.01 -2.5 -12.6, 8.7 0.65 0.19 -5.6 -15.5, 5.4 0.31 0.26
   BMI (kg/m2) -20.4 -29.6, -10.0 < 0.001 0.07 -20.8 -29.8, -10.7 < 0.001 0.17 -6.8 -18.9, 7.0 0.32 0.25
   Waist (cm) -23.7 -37.7, -6. 7 0.009 0.08 -24.7 -39.5, -6.3 0.011 0.20 -15.6 -32.1, 4.8 0.12 0.28
Adult DXA measures            
   Total fat (%) -24.6 -33.9, -14.1 < 0.001 0.12 -23.7 -32.9, -13.1 < 0.001 0.20 -13.8 -24.1, -2.3 0.02 0.28
   A:G ratio -26.9 -35.4, -17.3 < 0.001 0.14 -26.6 -34.2, -18.2 < 0.001 0.23 -19.6 -27.1, -11.2 < 0.001 0.30
Childhood BMI             
   BMI z-score at 8 to 10 years old -28.4 -37.3, -18.3 < 0.001 0.13 -30.0 -35.9, -23.5 < 0.001 0.25 -27.0 -32.9, -20.7 < 0.001 0.25
  1. Percentage difference (%Diff) in absolute dense breast volume associated with a one-standard-deviation difference in anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures. Results are also interpretable as the excess relative ratio. To convert to the relative ratio (RRatio), use the formula: RRatio = (%Diff + 100)/100. A:G, android:gynoid fat ratio; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval. aEstimates from six linear mixed-effects models including clinic as a random effect and anthropometric and body composition variables as fixed effects. Anthropometric and body composition variables are modeled separately without mutual adjustment. bEstimates from six linear mixed-effects models as described for unadjusted plus including race, education (attended college), smoking status, duration of hormone use, and parity as fixed effects. Model for height also includes weight as a fixed effect. cEstimates from six linear mixed-effects models as described above for adjusted plus including BMI z-score at 8 to 10 years old as a fixed effect in adult anthropometric and DXA models and young adult BMI in the childhood BMI model. dProportion of variance explained by model.