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Table 1 Genetic analysis of TGF-β and HGF/SF function in the mammary gland

From: Tumour-stromal interactions: Transforming growth factor-β isoforms and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in mammary gland ductal morphogenesis

Experimental design Cell type expression*/tissue affected Phenotype Reference
Gain of function    
   MMTV-TGF-β1 Mammary epithelium Inhibition of ductal development [15]
   WAP-TGF-β1 Lobuloalveolar progenitors and cells Inhibition of alveolar development; [17]
   aging of stem cells  
   β-lactoglobulin- TGF-β3 Alveolar and ductal epithelial cells during Induction of apoptosis [12]
   Retroviral HGF Primary mammary epithelial cells Increased TEB number and branching [32]
  transplanted into the mammary fat pad   
Loss of function    
   MMTV-dnTGF-β receptor II Mammary epithelium Precocious lobuloalveolar development [18]
   and milk production  
   MMTV-dnTGF-β receptor II Mammary stroma Increased lateral branching [13]
   TGF-β1-/- SCID Whole animal Hypoplastic ductal tree Ingram W, Robertson SA,
    personal communication
   TGF-β1+/- p21--/-- Whole animal Accelerated mammary development; [10]
   normal adult structure  
   SMAD-3--/-- Whole animal Hypoplastic mammary epithelium [21]
   TGF-β3--/-- Mammary epithelium into wild-type stroma Reduced apoptosis during involution. [12]
   Normal mammary development  
   dnMet Mammary tumor cells in culture followed Increased tubule formation [30]
  by transplantation to mice   
  1. *For gain of function. For loss of function. dn, dominant negative. MMTV, mouse mammary tumor virus; WAP = whey acidic protein.