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Table 1 Suggested risk factors for male breast cancer

From: Male breast carcinoma: increased awareness needed

Risk factor Explanation
BRCA2 BRCA2 mutations are associated with most inherited MBC
Klinefelter syndrome Hereditary condition characterised by the 47XXY karyotype, which is consistently associated with MBC
Androgen receptor mutation Germline mutations in AR predispose to MBC
CYP17 Encodes cytochrome P450c17α, an enzyme involved in oestrogen and androgen biosynthesis
Cowden syndrome Autosomal-dominant cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by germline mutation in the PTEN gene
CHEK2 CHEK2*1100delC variants may increase risk of MBC by 10-fold
Endogenous oestrogen levels Increased oestrogen levels as a result of obesity, male-female transsexuals and liver cirrhosis are all associated with MBC
Testicular disorders Cryptorchidism, mumps orchitis, orchiectomy, congenital inguinal hernia and testicular injury are associated with MBC
Physical inactivity Lack of exercise is associated with increased risk of MBC
  1. Data obtained from [37]. These references include comprehensive discussion on other considered risk factors for male breast cancer (MBC). CHEK, cell-cycle checkpoint kinase.