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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of post-menopausal women

From: Coffee consumption modifies risk of estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer

  Swedish study MARIE study
Characteristic Breast cancer cases/controls Cases Controls P a Breast cancer cases/controls Cases Controls P b
Age (matching factor, years) 2,818/3,111 63.4 ± 6.7 64.3 ± 6.5 - 2,651/5,395 63.2 ± 5.6 63.2 ± 5.5 -
Age at menarche (years) 2,558/2,832 13.5 ± 1.4 13.6 ± 1.4 0.0565 2,369/4,580 13.6 ± 1.6 13.7 ± 1.7 0.0026
Age at menopause (years) 2,803/3,093 50.4 ± 3.5 50 ± 3.9 < 0.0001 1,614/3,417 49.5 ± 4.7 49.0 ± 5.0 0.0014
Parity (No. of live births) 2,818/3,110 1.8 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.4 < 0.0001 2,651/5,395 1.6 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.2 < 0.0001
Age at first birth (years) 2,373/2,753 25.3 ± 4.9 24.6 ± 4.6 < 0.0001 2,185/4,537 24.7 ± 4.6 24.5 ± 4.4 0.1879
Body mass index (kg/m2) 2,803/3,065 25.8 ± 4.2 25.5 ± 4.2 0.0009 2,651/5,390 23.2 ± 3.2 23.3 ± 3.3 0.7134
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 2,537/2,400 2.5 ± 4.5 2.1 ± 3.9 0.0032 2,649/5,389 8.9 ± 18.2 8.4 ± 13.8 0.1731
History of breast cancer in first degree relative (Yes, %) 2,745/2,607 15.6 7.7 < 0.0001 2,512/5,096 18.6 12.6 < 0.0001
History of benign breast disease (Yes, %) 2,818/3,111 13.9 8.1 < 0.0001 2,647/5,379 41.2 34.9 < 0.0001
Use of hormone replacement therapy (Ever, %) 2,811/3,087 48.4 40.3 < 0.0001 2,645/5,375 68.5 60.7 < 0.0001
Smoked > 1 year or > 100 cigarettes (Yes, %) 2,817/3,109 42.5 44.3 0.6490 2,651/5,393 46.2 46.4 0.8602
Education, categorical* 2,800/2,646    0.0797 2,649/5,395    0.4634
- elementary school   45.4 46.7      
- junior secondary school   24.8 21.5   low 56.5 57.2  
- high school   15.2 13.8   medium 28.4 28.7  
- university   13.9 12.0   high 15.1 14.1  
Physical activity one year before recruitment, categorical 2,794/2,936    0.0055 2,625/5,350    0.0031
- none   17.8 15.8    37.3 33.5  
- < 1 h per week   15.8 14.9    23.9 23.9  
- 1 to 2 h per week   33.6 28.1    17.1 18.2  
- > 2 h per week   32.0 35.6    21.7 24.4  
  1. aP-values based on Wald tests. All logistic regression models adjusted for age at enrolment in years, continuous.
  2. bP-values based on Wald tests. All logistic regression models adjusted for age at enrolment in years, continuous, and study region.
  3. *MARIE study: education categorized into three levels: low, medium high.
  4. $MARIE study: sports activities after the age of 50.