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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants, according to estrogen/progesterone receptor status*

From: Adipokines, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer recurrence: a cohort study

Characteristic All
(N= 747)
ER/PR-negative†
(N= 233)
ER/PR-positive†
(N= 514)
P-value‡
Age (yr, mean ± SD) 45.9 ± 9.8 46.4 ± 10.6 45.7 ± 9.4 0.336
Current tobacco use (%) 3.6 3.4 3.7 0.858
Alcohol use above a safe level (%)     
   >0 and <7 g/week 6.4 7.3 6.0 0.771
   >= 7 g/week 4.7 4.3 4.9  
Postmenopausal (%) 31.3 36.5 29.0 0.041
Cancer size ≥ 2 cm 21.6 22.3 21.2 0.732
Positive lymph nodes 39.6 38.6 40.1 0.707
Chemotherapy after surgery 76.0 87.1 71.0 <0.001
Adipokines and insulin resistance     
Adiponectin, median (μg/ml, IQR)§ 5.9 (4.1 to 8.0) 5.2 (3.6 to 7.5) 6.1 (4.2 to 8.1) 0.004
   1Q 187 68 119  
   2Q 187 78 109  
   3Q 187 35 152  
   4Q 186 52 134  
   Leptin, median (ng/ml, IQR)§ 6.0 (3.2 to 11.7) 7.8 (3.5 to 12.9) 5.8 (3.2 to 11.2) 0.039
   1Q 187 53 134  
   2Q 187 45 142  
   3Q 187 67 20  
   4Q 186 68 118  
   HOMA-IR 1.7 (1.4 to 2.4) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.7) 1.7 (1.4 to 2.3) 0.013
   1Q 187 52 135  
   2Q 187 49 138  
   3Q 186 60 126  
   4Q 187 72 115  
   Insulin (μU/ml, IQR)§ 6.7 (5.6 to 8.9) 7.0 (5.6 to 9.8) 6.6 (5.6 to 8.6) 0.179
   1Q 189 63 126  
   2Q 185 44 141  
   3Q 186 57 129  
   4Q 187 69 118  
   Estradiol (pg/ml, IQR)§ 32.3 (14.3 to 89.5) 19.7 (12.7 to 67.2) 39.6 (15.9 to 96.8) <0.001
   1Q 190 79 111  
   2Q 184 65 119  
   3Q 186 43 143  
   4Q 187 46 141  
Components of metabolic syndrome     
   High blood pressure (%) 42.0 38.6 43.6 0.390
   Obesity (%)¶ 33.7 36.5 32.5 0.179
   Hyperglycemia (%)** 54.4 56.2 53.5 0.616
   Decreased HDL cholesterol (%)†† 60.0 61.8 59.1 0.492
   Elevated triglycerides (%)‡‡ 19.1 23.6 17.1 0.037
No. of components of metabolic syndrome (%)    
   1 25.4 20.2 27.8 0.170
   2 29.3 30.9 28.6  
   ≥3 35.9 39.1 34.4  
  1. * Plus-minus values are means ±SD.
  2. † Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) status were classified as ER/PR-negative if ER-negative and PR-negative status, and ER/PR-positive if ER-positive or PR-positive status.
  3. P-values are for the comparison between ER/PR-negative and ER/PR-positive status. § IQR denotes interquartile range (25th and 75th percentile)
  4. High blood pressure was defined if systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg or receiving drug treatment
  5. ¶ Obesity was defined if Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2
  6. ** Hyperglycemia was defined if fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dl or receiving drug treatment
  7. †† Decreased HDL cholesterol was defined if HDL cholesterol <50 mg/dl or receiving drug treatment
  8. ‡‡ Elevated triglycerides was defined if triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl or receiving drug treatment