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Table 5 Dietary acculturation by study group

From: Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

  Caucasians Chinese born in the West or migrated to the West before 21 Recent Chinese migrants P a
     P b P c P d P e
  (N = 379) (N = 152) (N = 374)     
Chinese dietary practices (% yes)        
Eat tofu 20.8 89.5 95.7     
Eat traditionally preserved/pickled vegetables 40.1 49.3 56.7     
Balance yin/yang foods 7.1 23.7 33.2     
Avoid cold foods and drinks 11.9 29.0 44.7     
Eat a Chinese style breakfast (for example,. congee) 5.0 46.1 65.5     
Chinese Dietary Acculturation Scoref 0.09 (0.08, 0.12) 0.42 (0.37, 0.47) 0.56 (0.53, 0.60) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
[Adjusted Mean (95% Confidence Limits)]        
Western dietary practices (% yes)        
Eat bread, rolls, or bagels 96.6 94.1 94.9     
Drink carbonated beverages 63.9 50.0 27.0     
Eat ground beef or hamburgers 77.6 59.9 30.5     
Eat pizza or spaghetti with tomato sauce 89.2 79.6 52.7     
Eat any kind of cheese 97.1 80.3 49.7     
Drink milk or eat milk products 94.5 87.5 89.6     
Eat cakes, pies, or cookies for dessert 92.7 94.7 80.0     
Eat packaged or prepared foods (for example, TV dinners) 42.5 50.0 40.1     
Eat at Western fast food restaurants 40.9 50.0 33.2     
Eat between meals 81.3 90.1 80.9     
Western Dietary Acculturation Scoreg 0.80 (0.78, 0.81) 0.77 (0.74, 0.79) 0.64 (0.61, 0.66) <0.001 0.10 <0.001 <0.001
[Adjusted Mean (95% Confidence Limits)]        
  1. a P values were based on ANCOVA, adjusting for age, education, and age × ethnicity. Pairwise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.
  2. b P values for ethnicity effect
  3. c P values for comparing Caucasians and Chinese born in the West or migrated to the West before age 21
  4. d P values for comparing Caucasians and recent Chinese migrants
  5. e P values for comparing Chinese born in the West or migrated to the West before age 21 and recent Chinese migrants
  6. f Square-root transformed. The scores ranged from 0 to 1. A high score indicates positive association with Chinese dietary practices.
  7. g Cube transformed. The scores ranged from 0 to 1. A high score indicates positive association with Western dietary practices.
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