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Table 1 Characteristics of the breast cancer case – control sample in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort

From: Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study

  Cases (n = 237) Controls (n = 952) P valuea
Age (years) 58.5 (8.6) 58.7 (8.9) 0.791
Weight (kg) 69.2 (11.4) 67.7 (11.2) 0.068
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1745.9 (386.6) 1678.6 (385.2) 0.022
Fat intake (g/day) 66.5 (19.7) 63.5 (20.1) 0.038
Alcohol intake (g/day) 8.6 (12.1) 7.8 (11.2) 0.179
Oestradiol (pmol/l)b 173.1 (341.3) 136.9 (259.4) 0.066
Age at menarche (years) 12.8 (1.6) 13.0 (1.5) 0.058
Family history of breast cancer: yes 23 (10%) 74 (8%) 0.216
Breastfed children: yes 155 (65%) 617 (65%) 0.865
Number of children    
   0 38 (16%) 117 (12%) 0.174
   1 26 (11%) 134 (14%)  
   2 103 (43%) 398 (42%)  
   3 57 (24%) 218 (23%)  
   4+ 13 (6%) 85 (9%)  
Menopausal statusc    
   Premenopausal 28 (12%) 123 (13%) 0.569
   Perimenopausal 15 (6%) 51 (5%)  
   Postmenopausal 1 57 (24%) 195 (21%)  
   Postmenopausal 2 137 (58%) 583 (61%)  
Menopausal hormone therapy use    
   Current 63 (27%) 207 (22%) 0.256
   Former 30 (13%) 118 (12%)  
   Never 144 (61%) 627 (66%)  
Oral contraceptive use    
   Current 9 (4%) 13 (1%) 0.041
   Former 98 (41%) 419 (44%)  
   Never 130 (55%) 520 (55%)  
Social class    
   Professional/manager 105 (45%) 405 (42%) 0.620
   Skilled nonmanual 46 (20%) 171 (18%)  
   Skilled manual 51 (22%) 197 (21%)  
   Semi-skilled/nonskilled 20 (9%) 112 (12%)  
   Missing/unclassified 15 (4%) 67 (7%)  
Smoking status    
   Current 26 (11%) 94 (10%) 0.822
   Former 70 (30%) 297 (32%)  
   Never 137 (59%) 550 (59%)  
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or n (column percentage). a P values obtained with a t test for continuous values and a chi-square test for categorical variables. bOestradiol data availability: serum phytoestrogens, 153 cases and 603 controls (51 cases and 185 controls among the oestrogen receptor-positive subgroup); urinary phytoestrogens, 141 cases and 543 controls (49 cases and 171 controls among the oestrogen receptor subgroup). cPerimenopausal, <1 year since last menstrual cycle; postmenopausal 1, 2 to 5 years since last menstrual cycle; postmenopausal 2, 5 years or more since last menstrual cycle.