p,p'-DDE modulates the expression of sex-steroid-dependent genes in CAMA-1 cells at the protein level. Immunoblots were performed after 24 hours of treatment with hormones and antiandrogens (or vehicles) as described in Materials and methods. Cyclin D1 (a), ERα (b), and AR (c) protein levels were quantified relative to actin content. Each bar represents the mean ± standard error of the mean of six independent experiments. A representative immunoblot is shown below each panel. Single asterisk indicates P < 0.05 and double asterisk P < 0.01 versus control; † and †† indicate, respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 versus E2 treatment; and ‡ and ‡‡ indicate, respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 versus E2+DHT treatment as determined by an analysis of variance with specific contrasts. AR, androgen receptor; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; E2, 17β-estradiol; ERα, estrogen receptor alpha; OHF, hydroxyflutamide; p,p'-DDE, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene.