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Table 1 Studies of steroid sex hormones, SHBG, and mammographic density

From: Mammographic density. Potential mechanisms of breast cancer risk associated with mammographic density: hypotheses based on epidemiological evidence

    Direction of association [ref.]
Hormone Number of studiesa Menopausal status Positive None Inverse
Estrone 7 Premenopausal   Noh et al. [26]  
   Postmenopausal Bremnes et al. [32], Greendale et al. [33] Tamimi et al. [27]2, Aiello et al. [28]b, Warren et al. [29], Verheus et al. [30]2 Aiello et al. [28]c
Estradiol 8 Premenopausal   Noh et al. [26]1, Boyd et al. [31]  
   Postmenopausal Greendale et al. [33] Tamimi et al. [27]2, Aiello et al. [28]b, Warren et al. [29], Verheus et al. [30]2, Boyd et al. [31], Bremnes et al. [32] Aiello et al. [28]c
Free estradiol 8 Premenopausal   Noh et al. [26], Boyd et al. [31]  
   Postmenopausal Greendale et al. [33] Tamimi et al. [27]2, Aiello et al. [28]b, Warren et al. [29], Verheus et al. [30]2, Bremnes et al. [32] Aiello et al. [28]c, Boyd et al. [31]
Progesterone 5 Premenopausal   Noh et al. [26]1, Boyd et al. [31]1  
   Postmenopausal   Tamimi et al. [27], Warren et al. [29], Boyd et al. [31], Greendale et al. [33]  
SHBG 8 Premenopausal   Noh et al. [26]1, Boyd et al. [31]1  
   Postmenopausal Boyd et al. [31], Bremnes et al. [32] Tamimi et al. [27]1, Aiello et al. [28]b,c, Warren et al. [29], Verheus et al. [30]1, Greendale et al. [33]1  
Testosterone 6 Premenopausal   NA  
   Postmenopausal   Tamimi et al. [27], Aiello et al. [28]b, Warren et al. [29], Verheus et al. [30]2, Bremnes et al. [32], Greendale et al. [33] Aiello et al. [28]c
Androstenedione 5 Premenopausal   NA  
   Postmenopausal   Tamimi et al. [27], Aiello et al. [28]b, Warren et al. [29], Verheus et al. [30], Bremnes et al. [32] Aiello et al. [37]c
  1. Associations shown are for percentage density. Associations were classified as positive, none, or inverse according to the direction of effect and the statistical significance of the values after adjustment for other factors, using a criterion of P < 0.05. Several associations were statistically significant before adjustment for other factors and these are indicated as follows: 1positive association before adjustment and 2inverse association before adjustment. aSome studies included both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. bResults for never users of hormones. cResults for users of hormones. SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin; NA, not assessed.