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Table 3 Characteristics of studies examining the effect of psychological intervention on breast cancer survival

From: The effect of psychosocial factors on breast cancer outcome: a systematic review

Reference Setting Type of study Study population Aim of the study
Spiegel et al. 1989 [35] California, USA Prospective 86 women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast. Intervention group: 50 patients. Control group: 36 patients Examination of the effect of psychosocial intervention on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer
Gellert et al. 1993 [36] New Haven, Connecticut, USA Retrospective cohort study 102 non-participants and 34 participants in the psychological support program were matched on major prognostic factors. Both groups were monitored from the day of cancer diagnosis (1971 through 1980) until March 1991 Examination of the effect of a psychosocial intervention on breast cancer survival
Cunningham et al. 1998 [37] Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada Prospective case control study Intervention group: 30 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Control group: 36 patients with metastatic breast cancer Examination of the effect of a psychological intervention on breast cancer survival
Edelman et al. 1999 [38] Australia Prospective case control study 121 patients with metastatic breast cancer, of whom 60 participated in the cognitive behavioural therapy program (therapy group) and 61 did not (control group Examination of the effect of a psychological intervention on breast cancer survival
Shrock et al. 1999 [39] Two rural hospitals or cancer centres in Pennsylvania Matched case control Intervention group: 21 patients with stage I breast cancer. Control group: 74 patients with stage I breast cancer Examination of the effect of a psychological intervention on breast cancer survival
Goodwin et al. 2001 [40] Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto. Also participated: Hamilton Regional Cancer Center, Hamilton, Ontario; Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ottawa Ontario; Cancer Care, Manitoba, Winnipeg; Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Alberta; British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver; Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta Prospective 235 women with metastatic breast cancer, expected to survive at least 3 months (intervention group, 158 women; control group, 77 women) Examination of the effect of a psychological intervention on breast cancer survival