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Table 2 Mammographic breast density and risk estimates for breast DCIS and invasive breast cancer

From: The association of mammographic density with ductal carcinoma in situof the breast: the Multiethnic Cohort

Exposure variable Invasive breast cancer (n) Breast DCIS (n) Controls (n) Invasive versus controls DCIS versus controls DCIS versus invasive
Mean percentage density (%)
   <10 63 18 158 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   10–24.9 110 23 170 1.81 (1.21–2.70) 1.15 (0.57–2.30) 0.65 (0.31–1.35)
   25–49.9 174 34 212 2.53 (1.69–3.78) 1.29 (0.64–2.59) 0.56 (0.27–1.17)
   ≥50 135 44 127 3.58 (2.26–5.66) 2.86 (1.38–5.94) 0.89 (0.41–1.91)
P value for trend     <0.0001 0.0010  
Mean breast dense area (cm2)
   <15 95 26 209 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   15–29.9 136 29 200 1.58 (1.12–2.23) 1.05 (0.58–1.92) 0.75 (0.40–1.40)
   30–44.9 109 28 133 1.93 (1.32–2.81) 1.70 (0.90–3.22) 0.92 (0.48–1.76)
   ≥45 142 36 125 2.92 (2.01–4.25) 2.59 (1.39–4.82) 0.99 (0.53–1.86)
P value for trend     <0.0001 0.0026  
  1. Values are expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals), which were estimated using polytomous logistic regression and adjusted for ethnicity, mean age of all mammograms, body mass index, age at first live birth, number of children, age at menarche, menopausal status, use of hormone replacement therapy, and family history of breast cancer. DCIS, ductal carcinoma in situ.