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Table 1 Characteristics of daughters and mothers in the Columbia Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (Columbia-BCERP) Study by Σ8 PAH and household tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy

From: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pregnancy and breast tissue composition in adolescent daughters and their mothers: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Tertile of Σ8 PAH exposure during pregnancy p valuea Tobacco smoker in the household during pregnancy p valuea
Low, < 1.75 ng/m3 Medium, 1.75 to < 2.95 ng/m3 High, ≥ 2.95 ng/m3 No Yes
Daughters (n = 182)
Age at OS, years, mean (SD) 15.4 (2.5) 16.3 (2.4) 16.8 (2.1) 0.004 16.0 (2.3) 16.4 (2.5) 0.32
Tanner stage at OS, n (%)     0.05    0.58
 Stage 1 or 2 19 (30.7) 5 (8.3) 10 (16.7)   26 (21.5) 8 (13.1)  
 Stage 3 18 (29.0) 19 (31.7) 18 (30.0)   36 (29.8) 19 (31.2)  
 Stage 4 or 5 22 (35.5) 35 (58.3) 30 (50.0)   55 (45.5) 32 (52.5)  
 Unknown 3 (4.8) 1 (1.7) 2 (3.3)   4 (3.3) 2 (3.3)  
Birthweight, grams, mean (SD) 3286 (431) 3380 (458) 3304 (531) 0.51 3376 (455) 3219 (494) 0.04
BMI at age 9, kg/m2, mean (SD)  19.6 (4.4) 20.6 (5.2) 19.8 (4.4) 0.54 19.8 (4.9) 20.3 (4.2) 0.50
BMI at OS, kg/m2, mean (SD) 24.5 (6.5) 26.7 (7.2) 26.0 (7.6) 0.22 25.5 (7.1) 26.2 (7.2) 0.52
Body fat at OS, %, mean (SD) 29.4 (7.4) 30.7 (8.3) 29.8 (8.3) 0.67 29.8 (8.0) 30.3 (7.8) 0.65
Age at menarche, years, mean (SD) 11.3 (1.4) 11.7 (1.3) 11.7 (1.6) 0.15 11.6 (1.5) 11.5 (1.4) 0.66
Smoker in household during pregnancy, n (%)     0.84    
 Yes 19 (30.7) 21 (35.0) 21 (35.0)     
 No 43 (69.4) 39 (65.0) 39 (65.0)     
Pyrene exposure during pregnancy, ng/m3, mean (SD) 2.9 (2.1) 2.9 (1.3) 3.9 (2.3) 0.007 3.2 (2.1) 3.2 (1.7) 0.81
Mothers (n = 175)
Age at OS, years, mean (SD) 41.1 (5.8) 42.4 (5.2) 42.9 (5.3) 0.20 42.6 (5.2) 41.1 (5.8) 0.08
Race and ethnicity, n (%)     0.66    0.001
 Non-Hispanic Black 20 (33.9) 22 (38.6) 18 (30.5)   30 (25.6) 30 (51.7)  
 Hispanic 39 (66.1) 35 (61.4) 41 (69.5)   87 (74.4) 28 (48.3)  
Education during pregnancy, n (%)     0.70    0.95
 High school degree or less 44 (74.6) 43 (76.8) 47 (81.0)   90 (77.6) 44 (77.2)  
 More than high school 15 (25.4) 13 (23.2) 11 (19.0)   26 (22.4) 13 (22.8)  
Public assistance during pregnancy, n (%)     0.98    0.28
 Yes 30 (50.9) 29 (50.9) 28 (49.1)   55 (47.4) 32 (56.1)  
 No 29 (49.2) 28 (49.1) 29 (50.9)   61 (52.6) 25 (43.9)  
Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 24.6 (4.5) 26.9 (7.5) 25.9 (4.9) 0.12 25.5 (5.4) 26.4 (6.6) 0.36
Weight gain during pregnancy, kg, mean (SD) 13.4 (7.9) 12.0 (6.3) 11.9 (6.5) 0.42 11.9 (6.6) 13.5 (7.3) 0.14
BMI at OS, kg/m2, mean (SD) 29.9 (6.5) 31.7 (7.7) 30.7 (6.9) 0.41 30.3 (6.9) 31.6 (7.2) 0.24
Body fat at OS, %, mean (SD) 36.2 (7.6) 37.2 (6.0) 36.7 (7.0) 0.77 36.2 (6.7) 37.6 (7.2) 0.24
Tobacco smoker in the household during pregnancy, n (%)     0.86    
 Yes 18 (30.5) 20 (35.1) 20 (33.9)     
 No 41 (69.5) 37 (64.9) 39 (66.1)     
Pyrene exposure during pregnancy, ng/m3, mean (SD) 2.9 (2.2) 2.8 (1.2) 3.9 (2.3) 0.006 3.3 (2.1) 3.1 (1.7) 0.61
  1. BMI Body mass index; OS Optical index; PAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; SD standard deviation
  2. aP value reported from Pearson chi-squared test for categorical variables and either the two-sample test or analysis of variance test for continuous variables