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Table 3 Association of per cent density and dense area with adult height in pooled ICMD studies

From: The association of age at menarche and adult height with mammographic density in the International Consortium of Mammographic Density

  No. of women No. of measurements Per cent densitya Dense areaa,e
Changes in square-root per cent density (SE) P value Changes in square-root dense area (SE) P value
Height (categorical) (cm)       
 < 155 2718 3240 0   0  
 155–159.9 2551 3027 − 0.041 (0.037) 0.259 0.048 (0.048) 0.319
 160–164.9 2683 3151 − 0.056 (0.038) 0.141 0.096 (0.050) 0.057
 ≥ 165 2480 2900 − 0.075 (0.042) 0.076 0.118 (0.055) 0.034
Linear associations with a 10 cm increase in adult height       
All women—Model Ab       
 All, without BMI adjustment 10,432 12,318 0.044 (0.023) 0.054 0.069 (0.028) 0.012
 All, without age at menarche adjustment 10,432 12,318 − 0.057 (0.021) 0.007 0.062 (0.028) 0.025
 All, with BMI and menarche adjustment 10,432 12,318 − 0.060 (0.021) 0.005 0.059 (0.028) 0.034
By BMI strata: (kg/m2)       
 ≤ 20.0 652 752 0.042 (0.075) 0.569 0.184 (0.073) 0.011
 20.1–25.0 3882 4551 − 0.008 (0.034) 0.811 0.112 (0.041) 0.006
 25.1–30.0 3328 3937 − 0.043 (0.037) 0.241 0.121 (0.050) 0.015
 > 30.0 2570 3078 − 0.138 (0.040) 0.001 − 0.026 (0.060) 0.670
Subset by height measurement method       
 Measured 7062 8389 − 0.040 (0.026) 0.125 0.084 (0.034) 0.015
 Self-reported 3370 3929 − 0.096 (0.036) 0.007 0.020 (0.047) 0.676
Pre-menopausal women—Model Bc       
 All 4221 5000 − 0.049 (0.032) 0.130 0.074 (0.044) 0.092
Subset by parity       
 Nulliparous women 478 553 − 0.201 (0.089) 0.024 − 0.012 (0.117) 0.922
 Parous women 3743 4447 − 0.023 (0.034) 0.503 0.099 (0.047) 0.034
 Parous women + age 1st birth adjustment 3743 4447 − 0.024 (0.034) 0.490 0.099 (0.047) 0.033
Post-menopausal women—Model Cc       
 All 5747 6769 − 0.067 (0.028) 0.017 0.047 (0.036) 0.201
 All + age at menopause adjustment 5747 6769 − 0.070 (0.028) 0.013 0.043 (0.036) 0.239
Subset by parity       
 Nulliparous women 531 622 − 0.144 (0.081) 0.076 − 0.084 (0.098) 0.389
 Parous women 5216 6147 − 0.041 (0.029) 0.163 0.090 (0.039) 0.019
 Parous women + age at 1st birth adjustment 5216 6147 − 0.045 (0.029) 0.121 0.085 (0.038) 0.027
 Parous women + age at menopause adjustment 5216 6147 − 0.043 (0.029) 0.139 0.087 (0.038) 0.023
 Parous women + age at 1st birth + age at menopause adjustments 5216 6147 − 0.047 (0.029) 0.107 0.083 (0.038) 0.031
Nulliparous women—Model Dd       
 All 1059 1229 − 0.197 (0.060) 0.001 − 0.043 (0.075) 0.563
Parous women—Model Eb       
 All 9321 11,024 − 0.036 (0.022) 0.111 0.090 (0.030) 0.002
 All + age at 1st birth adjustment 9321 11,024 − 0.038 (0.022) 0.090 0.088 (0.030) 0.003
  1. BMI body mass index, ICMD International Consortium of Mammographic Density, SE standard error
  2. aA multi-level linear regression model was used to estimate the difference in square-root per cent density and dense area associated with each 10 cm increase in height. Models specified correlations of women (level 1) within population groups (level 2)
  3. bModels A (all women) and E (parous women): adjusted for age at mammogram3, menopausal status, age at mammogram* menopausal status interaction term, BMI3, use of HRT, mammogram view, calibration, reader, parity, age at menarche
  4. cModels B (pre-menopausal women) and C (post-menopausal women): adjusted for age at mammogram3, BMI3, use of HRT, mammogram view, calibration, reader, parity, age at menarche
  5. dModel D (nulliparous women): adjusted for age at mammogram3, menopausal status, age at mammogram* menopausal status interaction term, BMI3, use of HRT, mammogram view, calibration, reader, age at menarche
  6. eDense area models: BMI2 adjusted for instead of BMI3