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Table 3 Comparison of AI data for parous women by time since last birth versus nulliparous women

From: Towards defining morphologic parameters of normal parous and nulliparous breast tissues by artificial intelligence

Outcome Association measure Comparison between N = 103 parous women with a time since last birth ≤ 5 years and N = 545 nulliparous women (reference group) Comparison between N = 77 parous women with a time since last birth > 5 years and N = 545 nulliparous women (reference group)
Age-adjusted analysis Adjusting for age, race, BMI, percent fat, and relative with breast or ovarian cancerc Age-adjusted analysis Adjusting for age, race, BMI, percent fat, and relative with breast or ovarian cancerc
Estimate (95% CI) P value Estimate (95% CI) p value Estimate (95% CI) p value Estimate (95% CI) p value
TDLU counta Multiplicative effect on mean 1.40 (1.12, 1.76) 0.003 1.27 (1.02, 1.57) 0.031 1.90 (1.45, 2.48)  < 0.001 1.66 (1.28, 2.15)  < 0.001
Adipose tissue fracb Additive effect on mean − 0.02 (− 0.07, 0.04) 0.52 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.04) 0.27 − 0.00 (− 0.07, 0.06) 0.94 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.04) 0.71
Mean acini counta Multiplicative effect on mean 1.98 (1.67, 2.36)  < 0.001 1.91 (1.60, 2.28)  < 0.001 1.16 (0.95, 1.42) 0.14 1.14 (0.93, 1.41) 0.21
Dilated acini Multiplicative effect on mean 2.18 (1.70, 2.80)  < 0.001 2.07 (1.59, 2.70)  < 0.001 1.14 (0.87, 1.50) 0.34 1.11 (0.84, 1.48) 0.46
Mean avg acinib Additive effect on mean − 0.44 (− 0.55, − 0.32)  < 0.001 − 0.46 (− 0.57, − 0.34)  < 0.001 − 0.33 (− 0.47, − 0.19)  < 0.001 − 0.30 (− 0.45, − 0.16)  < 0.001
Mean cap sizeb Additive effect on mean 0.16 (− 0.02, 0.34) 0.081 0.17 (− 0.02, 0.36) 0.078 − 0.05 (− 0.26, 0.16) 0.62 − 0.04 (− 0.26, 0.18) 0.70
Mean epi sizeb Additive effect on mean 0.12 (− 0.05, 0.29) 0.16 0.11 (− 0.06, 0.29) 0.21 − 0.12 (− 0.31, 0.07) 0.22 − 0.12 (− 0.32, 0.08) 0.24
Mean epi stroma ratiob Additive effect on mean − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01) 0.41 − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01) 0.40 − 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.00) 0.097 − 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.01) 0.25
Mononuclear cell counta Multiplicative effect on mean 1.85 (1.58, 2.18)  < 0.001 1.82 (1.54, 2.14)  < 0.001 1.06 (0.89, 1.27) 0.51 1.05 (0.87, 1.27) 0.61
Mean nearby fatb Additive effect on mean 0.68 (− 3.80, 5.15) 0.77 1.70 (− 2.40, 5.80) 0.42 0.01 (− 5.18, 5.19) 1.00 0.30 (− 4.54, 5.15) 0.90
Mean TDLU sizeb Additive effect on mean 0.17 (0.01, 0.32) 0.038 0.16 (− 0.00, 0.32) 0.055 0.03 (− 0.15, 0.22) 0.70 0.02 (− 0.17, 0.21) 0.83
  1. CI = confidence interval; adp = adipose; avg = average; cap = capillary; epi = epithelial; TDLU = terminal duct lobular unit
  2. aNegative binomial regression models were used for comparisons between parous and nulliparous women; multiplicative effects on the mean and 95% CIs were estimated and are interpreted as the multiplicative effect on the mean outcome value.
  3. bLinear regression models were used for comparisons between parous and nulliparous women; additive effects on the mean and 95% CIs were estimated and are interpreted as the additive effect on the mean outcome value (on the natural logarithm scale for mean avg acini, mean cap size, mean epi size, and mean TDLU size, and on the cube root scale for mean nearby fat).
  4. cMultivariable models were adjusted for age as well as any variable that differed between parous and nulliparous women with a P value < 0.15. P values < 0.0045 are considered as statistically significant after applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing