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Table 2 AI data for parous versus nulliparous women

From: Towards defining morphologic parameters of normal parous and nulliparous breast tissues by artificial intelligence

Outcome Parous women (N = 180) Nulliparous women (N = 545) Association measure Comparison between parous women and nulliparous women (reference group)
Age-adjusted analysis Adjusting for age, race, BMI, percent fat, and relative with breast or ovarian cancerd
N Mean (min, max) N Mean (min, max) Estimate (95% CI) p value Estimate (95% CI) p value
TDLU counta 180 17 (0, 186) 545 15 (0, 121) Multiplicative effect on mean 1.58 (1.30, 1.92)  < 0.001 1.38 (1.15, 1.67)  < 0.001
Adp tissue fracb 180 0.53 (0.03, 0.95) 545 0.46 (0.02, 0.95) Additive effect on mean − 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.04) 0.66 0.01 (− 0.01, 0.04) 0.27
Mean acini counta 177 35 (4, 301) 522 26 (3, 195) Multiplicative effect on mean 1.66 (1.43, 1.93)  < 0.001 1.60 (1.38, 1.86)  < 0.001
Dilated acini 177 2 (0, 69) 522 1 (0, 10) Multiplicative effect on mean 1.78 (1.43, 2.23)  < 0.001 1.70 (1.35, 2.15)  < 0.001
Mean avg acinib 177 1965 (523, 8455) 522 2718 (544, 12,737) Additive effect on mean − 0.40 (− 0.50, − 0.30)  < 0.001 − 0.40 (− 0.50, − 0.30)  < 0.001
Mean cap sizeb 177 9741 (151, 75,885) 522 9009 (37, 73,952) Additive effect on mean 0.07 (− 0.07, 0.23) 0.34 0.08 (− 0.08, 0.24) 0.32
Mean epi sizeb 177 56,318 (2283, 504,707) 522 52,720 (2457, 327,186) Additive effect on mean 0.03 (− 0.12, 0.17) 0.73 0.02 (− 0.13, 0.17) 0.80
Mean epi stroma ratiob 177 0.37 (0.12, 0.62) 522 0.41 (0.10, 0.95) Additive effect on mean − 0.02 (− 0.04, 0.00) 0.13 − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01) 0.20
Mononuclear cell counta 177 141 (5, 1544) 522 98 (0, 685) Multiplicative effect on mean 1.54 (1.34, 1.77)  < 0.001 1.51 (1.31, 1.74)  < 0.001
Mean nearby fatb 177 161,457 (0, 4,695,569) 522 106,157 (0, 2,920,220) Additive effect on mean 0.45 (− 3.40, 4.29) 0.82 1.20 (− 2.31, 4.71) 0.50
Mean TDLU sizeb 177 196,285 (25,955, 1,960,288) 522 159,555 (20,508, 1,312,554) Additive effect on mean 0.11 (− 0.02, 0.25) 0.10 0.10 (− 0.04, 0.24) 0.17
  1. CI = confidence interval; adp = adipose; avg = average; cap = capillary; epi = epithelial; TDLU = terminal duct lobular unit
  2. aNegative binomial regression models were used for comparisons between parous and nulliparous women; multiplicative effects on the mean and 95% CIs were estimated and are interpreted as the multiplicative effect on the mean outcome value
  3. bLinear regression models were used for comparisons between parous and nulliparous women; additive effects on the mean and 95% CIs were estimated and are interpreted as the additive effect on the mean outcome value (on the natural logarithm scale for mean avg acini, mean cap size, mean epi size, and mean TDLU size, and on the cube root scale for mean nearby fat)
  4. cMultivariable models were adjusted for age as well as any variable that differed between parous and nulliparous women with a p value < 0.15. p values < 0.0045 are considered as statistically significant after applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing
  5. dP-values < 0.0045 are considered as statistically significant after applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing