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Table 3 Risk of breast cancer in men in relation to number of biological children

From: Infertility and risk of breast cancer in men: a national case–control study in England and Wales

  Cases
No. %
  Controls
No. %
  Odds ratioa
(95% CI)
All subjects
P Odds ratioa (95% CI) excluding potentially confounding conditionsb P
Fatherhood (i.e. any children)         
 No 383 19.2 174 10.9 1.00c   1.00  
 Yes 1615 80.8 1423 89.1 0.67 (0.54–0.82)  < 0.001 0.70 (0.56–0.88) 0.003
No. of children         
 0 383 19.2 174 10.9 1.00   1.00  
 1 296 14.8 172 10.8 0.94 (0.71–1.25) 0.69 0.97 (0.73–1.31) 0.94
 2 789 39.5 798 50.0 0.60 (0.48–0.75)  < 0.001 0.64 (0.50–0.81)  < 0.001
 ≥ 3 530 26.5 453 28.4 0.66 (0.52–0.84)  < 0.001 0.69 (0.54–0.89) 0.006
Linear trend per child, including 0      0.85 (0.79–0.92)  < 0.001 0.86 (0.80–0.94)  < 0.001
Linear trend per child, excluding 0      0.89 (0.79–1.00) 0.04 0.89 (0.79–1.00) 0.053
Total 1998 100.0 1597 100.0     
  1. CI, confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for age, socio-economic status (Acorn score [20]), year of interview, marital status and geographical region of residence
  3. bExcluding 11 men with Klinefelter syndrome, 9 with potentially confounding prior cancers, 29 who were severely obese at age 20 (n = 2) or at age 40 (n = 27), and 169 with testicular diseases
  4. c i.e. odds ratio raised (1.50 (1.21–1.86); p < 0.001) for childless men, if fathers are taken as the baseline