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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of male breast cancer cases and controls participating in the study

From: Infertility and risk of breast cancer in men: a national case–control study in England and Wales

Characteristic Cases Generations study husband controls Non-blood relative controls All controls
No. % No. % No. % No. %
Index age (years)a
 < 40 47 (2.4) 8 (0.8) 76 (12.4) 84 (5.3)
 40–9 159 (8.0) 13 (1.3) 135 (22.1) 148 (9.3)
 50–9 385 (19.2) 118 (12.0) 165 (26.9) 283 (17.7)
 60–9 729 (36.5) 564 (57.3) 162 (26.4) 726 (45.5)
 70–9 678 (33.9) 281 (28.6) 75 (12.2) 356 (22.3)
Socio-economic group (ACORN)b
 1 (highest) 710 (35.5) 594 (60.4) 271 (44.2) 865 (54.2)
 2 120 (6.0) 35 (3.5) 25 (4.1) 60 (3.8)
 3 633 (32.2) 279 (28.4) 204 (33.3) 483 (30.2)
 4 318 (15.9) 57 (5.8) 77 (12.5) 134 (8.4)
 5 (lowest) 183 (9.2) 12 (1.2) 32 (5.2) 44 (2.7)
 Uncategorisedc 24 (1.2) 7 (0.7) 4 (0.7) 11 (0.7)
Region of residence
 North 375 (18.8) 172 (17.5) 91 (14.5) 263 (16.5)
 North-West 368 (18.4) 193 (19.6) 98 (15.6) 291 (18.2)
 Mids, East and Wales 379 (18.9) 154 (15.7) 131 (20.9) 285 (17.8)
 London & SE 465 (23.3) 270 (27.4) 159 (25.3) 429 (26.9)
 South West 411 (20.6) 195 (19.8) 149 (23.7) 344 (21.6)
Year of interview
 2007–9 447 (22.4) 214 (21.7) 229 (37.4) 443 (27.7)
 2010–14 807 (40.4) 533 (54.2) 245 (40.0) 778 (48.7)
 2015–20 744 (37.2) 237 (24.1) 139 (22.7) 376 (23.6)
Marital status
 Married or cohabiting 1600 (80.1) 984 (100.0) 556 (90.7) 1540 (96.4)
 Not married 398 (19.9) 0 (0.0) 57 (9.3) 57 (3.6)
Year of diagnosis
 2005–9 682 (34.1)       
 2010–14 851 (42.6)       
 2015–17 465 (23.3)       
Breast cancer
 Invasive 1838 (92.0)       
 In situ 160 (8.0)       
ER         
 + ve 1844 (92.3)       
 − ve 28 (1.4)       
 Not known 126 (6.3)       
Total 1998 (100) 984 (100) 613 (100) 1597 (100)
  1. ER, Oestrogen receptor
  2. aAge at diagnosis of cases; equivalent age for controls (see Methods)
  3. bAcorn score based on postcode of residence [20]
  4. cGeographic areas not covered by Acorn (Isle of Man, Channel Islands), and residence in an institution or other non-household location