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Table 2 Representative studies in AI-enabled direct breast risk assessment from mammographic images

From: Artificial intelligence in mammographic phenotyping of breast cancer risk: a narrative review

Study Image format Time from exam to breast cancer diagnosis # images (# women) Vendors (# sites) Model architecture Model performance
Long-term risk assessment
Yala et al. [46] FFDM (processed) 1–5 years 295,002 images (91,520 women) Hologic (3 sites) ResNet-18* AUC = 0.84, 1-year risk
AUC = 0.76, 5-year risk
Dembrower et al. [43] FFDM (processed) 3.6 ± 2.2 years 150,502 images (1188 cases; 10,563 controls) Hologic (N/R) Inception-ResNet* OR = 1.55
ORadj = 1.56
AUC = 0.65
Arefan et al. [45] FFDM (processed) 1–4 years 452 images (113 cases; 113 controls) Hologic (1 site) GoogleLeNet AUC = 0.68, CC
AUC = 0.60, MLO
Yala et al. [44] FFDM (processed) 1–5 years 88,994 images (1821 cases; 38,284 controls) Hologic (1 site) ResNet-18* AUC = 0.68 for image only DL
AUC = 0.70 for hybrid DL + risk factors
Ha et al. [47] FFDM (processed) 2–5.3 years N/R (210 cases; 527 controls) GE (1 site) CNN OR = 4.42
Acc = 72%
Short-term risk assessment
Lotter et al. [48] FFDM (processed)
DBT (MSP)
1–2 years N/R (> 1000 cases; 62 K controls) GE, Hologic (7 databases/sites) RetinaNet* AUC = 0.75–0.76
Eriksson et al. [49] FFDM (processed) 3 months–2 years N/R (974 cases, 9376 controls) GE, Philips, Sectra, Hologic, Siemens (4 sites) CNN** HR = 7.9
AUC = 0.73
McKinney et al. [50] FFDM (processed) 0 months–3.25 years N/R (> 105 k women) Hologic, GE, Siemens (4 sites) RetinaNet
MobileNetV2
ResNet-v2-50
ResNet-v1-50
AUC = 0.76–0.89
  1. The table describes the development image dataset used in each study, including format of mammographic images, time window from mammographic exam to breast cancer diagnosis, sample size, and vendors, as well as model architecture and performance in breast cancer risk assessment
  2. FFDM full-field digital mammography, CNN convolutional neural network, AUC area under the ROC curve, Acc accuracy, OR odds ratio, HR hazard ratio
  3. *Indicates publicly available AI model. **Indicates commercial model. N/R not explicitly reported in the paper