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Table 4 Geometric means (pmol/L) and 95% CIs of serum estrogens/estrogen metabolites by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) tertile in postmenopausal control women not using menopausal hormone therapy in the Ghana Breast Health Study

From: Measured body size and serum estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women: the Ghana Breast Health Study

  Geometric mean (95% CI) (model 1) p-trend
 < 0.86 0.86–0.93  > 0.93
N 180 176 182   
Median BMI (kg/m2) 24.0 26.0 29.0   
Estrone 265.63 (196.64–358.83) 280.96 (208.05–379.43) 332.58 (247.85–446.28) 0.03 25.2
 Unconjugated 59.62 (50.09–70.96) 57.50 (48.32–68.41) 65.72 (55.47–77.88) 0.18 10.2
 Conjugated 195.47 (136.03–280.86) 215.62 (149.69–310.61) 261.63 (183.72–372.58) 0.02 33.8
Estradiol 25.85 (19.75–33.82) 25.68 (19.62–33.60) 30.30 (23.19–39.59) 0.16 17.2
 Unconjugated 17.65 (13.75–22.66) 17.14 (13.38–21.96) 20.13 (15.63–25.92) 0.23 14
 Conjugated 4.11 (2.15–7.84) 4.49 (2.34–8.61) 5.05 (2.64–9.67) 0.28 23
2-Hydroxyestrone 55.59 (48.69–63.48) 50.51 (44.35–57.51) 54.15 (47.66–61.52) 0.66 − 2.6
2-Hydroxyestradiol 8.99 (6.59–12.27) 8.83 (6.53–11.96) 9.19 (6.83–12.37) 0.78 2.3
2-Methoxyestrone 22.16 (18.06–27.20) 21.67 (17.70–26.54) 21.32 (17.62–25.80) 0.58 − 3.8
 Unconjugated 9.79 (7.81–12.26) 8.36 (6.67–10.49) 8.25 (6.64–10.24) 0.03 − 15.7
 Conjugated 9.40 (7.00–12.63) 10.65 (7.98–14.20) 10.96 (8.44–14.23) 0.20 16.6
2-Methoxyestradiol 12.73 (9.96–16.28) 12.52 (9.72–16.12) 12.84 (10.02–16.46) 0.89 0.9
 Unconjugated 3.20 (2.57–3.98) 2.84 (2.28–3.53) 2.76 (2.22–3.43) 0.02 − 13.7
 Conjugated 7.85 (5.57–11.06) 8.42 (5.92–11.99) 8.98 (6.37–12.65) 0.18 14.3
2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether 3.66 (2.94–4.57) 3.64 (2.94–4.52) 3.76 (3.05–4.64) 0.72 2.6
4-Hydroxyestrone 7.04 (5.14–9.66) 7.27 (5.25–10.06) 7.35 (5.37–10.05) 0.61 4.3
4-Methoxyestrone 3.93 (3.15–4.90) 3.41 (2.75–4.22) 3.58 (2.90–4.43) 0.14 − 8.8
4-Methoxyestradiol 1.46 (1.18–1.80) 1.51 (1.22–1.87) 1.57 (1.28–1.93) 0.26 7.6
16α-Hydroxyestrone 31.89 (22.93–44.34) 32.62 (23.35–45.57) 42.96 (31.11–59.32) 0.003 34.7
Estriol 82.26 (66.81–101.28) 91.05 (74.10–111.88) 102.32 (83.39–125.56) 0.01 24.4
 Unconjugated 9.21 (8.28–10.25) 10.13 (9.01–11.39) 9.40 (8.47–10.43) 0.62 2
 Conjugated 71.43 (56.65–90.07) 77.59 (61.76–97.49) 90.38 (72.03–113.40) 0.01 26.5
16-Ketoestradiol 17.82 (14.10–22.51) 18.56 (14.71–23.41) 22.85 (18.09–28.86) 0.002 28.2
16-Epiestriol 17.45 (13.81–22.04) 17.79 (14.15–22.36) 19.87 (15.80–24.98) 0.08 13.9
17-Epiestriol 25.37 (19.23–33.49) 27.06 (20.42–35.87) 26.27 (19.89–34.70) 0.63 3.5
  1. Geometric means adjusted for age at blood draw (continuous), blood draw year (2013, 2014, 2015), smoking status (never, former, current, missing), diabetes (yes, no, missing), time since menopause (≤ 2, 3–5, 6–10, > 10, missing), ever used oral contraceptives (yes, no, missing)
  2. p-trend was estimated using the Wald test for ordinal WHR category
  3. %Δ indicates the percentage change in estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels, comparing women with highest WHR tertile to lowest WHR tertile, and was estimated by taking the ratio of the geometric mean difference in estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels between women with highest WHR tertile minus lowest WHR tertile to the geometric mean of women with lowest WHR tertile, multiplied by 100
  4. Bold p-values represent FDR ≤ 0.05