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Table 3 Geometric means (pmol/L) and 95% CIs of serum estrogens/estrogen metabolites by current body size assessed using pictogram in postmenopausal control women not using menopausal hormone therapy in the Ghana Breast Health Study

From: Measured body size and serum estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women: the Ghana Breast Health Study

  Geometric mean (95% CI) p-trend p-diff
Slight Average Slightly heavy Heavy
N 64 189 175 87    
Median BMI (kg/m2) 22 25 29 31    
Estrone 277.88 (168.63–457.91) 472.03 (299.00–745.19) 562.73 (351.76–900.24) 748.98 (449.60–1,247.71)  < 0.0001 58.7  < 0.0001
 Unconjugated 52.63 (40.17–68.96) 66.56 (52.15–84.95) 74.68 (57.90–96.31) 94.03 (70.48–125.45)  < 0.0001 41.3  < 0.0001
 Conjugated 189.16 (105.62–338.78) 397.12 (241.72–652.42) 474.59 (284.04–792.96) 637.85 (365.42–1,113.38)  < 0.0001 60.6  < 0.0001
Estradiol 28.47 (18.21–44.53) 41.16 (27.80–60.95) 49.45 (32.77–74.60) 66.41 (42.42–103.95)  < 0.0001 61.3  < 0.0001
 Unconjugated 19.55 (13.51–28.28) 30.52 (22.13–42.09) 33.98 (24.18–47.74) 47.33 (31.93–70.18)  < 0.0001 55.1  < 0.0001
 Conjugated 3.86 (1.59–9.38) 6.37 (2.83–14.32) 10.37 (4.54–23.68) 10.18 (4.16–24.94) 0.0001 59.8 0.0011
2-Hydroxyestrone 52.77 (45.52–61.18) 62.25 (55.20–70.19) 66.33 (57.88–76.03) 70.17 (58.93–83.57) 0.0008 12.7 0.0005
2-Hydroxyestradiol 12.07 (8.09–18.01) 10.33 (7.24–14.74) 10.47 (7.25–15.12) 10.17 (6.93–14.92) 0.30 − 1.6 0.18
2-Methoxyestrone 17.04 (13.44–21.59) 18.17 (14.85–22.23) 18.99 (15.31–23.57) 21.42 (16.80–27.31) 0.02 17.9 0.02
 Unconjugated 6.21 (4.89–7.89) 6.58 (5.44–7.96) 6.38 (5.18–7.87) 6.79 (5.30–8.70) 0.62 3.1 0.44
 Conjugated 8.59 (5.85–12.62) 10.03 (7.58–13.27) 11.61 (8.57–15.73) 14.57 (10.30–20.61) 0.001 45.3 0.003
2-Methoxyestradiol 9.77 (7.65–12.49) 10.17 (8.26–12.51) 10.40 (8.36–12.94) 9.52 (7.50–12.08) 0.83 − 6.4 0.79
Unconjugated 2.63 (2.09–3.32) 2.86 (2.38–3.45) 2.88 (2.36–3.52) 2.84 (2.29–3.52) 0.49 − 0.7 0.40
Conjugated 6.59 (4.56–9.54) 6.96 (5.23–9.27) 6.78 (4.98–9.22) 6.42 (4.59–8.97) 0.72 − 7.8 0.87
2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether 3.00 (2.32–3.89) 3.12 (2.45–3.96) 3.29 (2.56–4.24) 3.37 (2.56–4.44) 0.19 8.2 0.27
4-Hydroxyestrone 6.60 (4.51–9.65) 7.60 (5.46–10.58) 8.46 (5.96–12.00) 9.47 (6.58–13.63) 0.0007 24.6 0.002
4-Methoxyestrone 3.07 (2.52–3.74) 3.00 (2.58–3.48) 3.19 (2.72–3.76) 3.08 (2.55–3.71) 0.63 2.6 0.98
4-Methoxyestradiol 1.51 (1.16–1.95) 1.58 (1.29–1.92) 1.61 (1.29–2.00) 1.63 (1.30–2.05) 0.42 3.3 0.44
16α-Hydroxyestrone 21.42 (14.99–30.61) 30.66 (22.61–41.57) 29.25 (21.00–40.73) 37.29 (25.86–53.75) 0.002 21.6 0.0001
Estriol 85.14 (69.73–103.95) 92.92 (79.22–109.00) 95.18 (79.99–113.26) 113.48 (90.92–141.64) 0.014 22.1 0.01
 Unconjugated 9.53 (8.17–11.13) 9.74 (8.64–10.98) 10.44 (9.09–11.99) 9.86 (8.50–11.44) 0.28 1.3 0.61
 Conjugated 73.92 (59.01–92.59) 80.71 (67.41–96.64) 81.25 (66.65–99.06) 102.40 (80.16–130.81) 0.017 26.9 0.01
16-Ketoestradiol 11.97 (9.51–15.07) 15.74 (13.33–18.57) 15.69 (12.99–18.95) 19.92 (15.74–25.21) 0.0002 26.6  < 0.0001
16-Epiestriol 16.64 (12.80–21.63) 19.37 (15.52–24.17) 19.88 (15.86–24.92) 22.85 (17.56–29.74) 0.008 18.0 0.005
17-Epiestriol 19.86 (13.54–29.15) 20.60 (14.42–29.42) 20.95 (14.54–30.19) 20.68 (14.15–30.22) 0.70 0.4 0.71
  1. Geometric means adjusted for age at blood draw (continuous), blood draw year (2013, 2014, 2015), smoking status (never, former, current, missing), diabetes (yes, no, missing), time since menopause (≤ 2, 3–5, 6–10, > 10, missing), ever used oral contraceptives (yes, no, missing)
  2. p-trend was estimated using the Wald test for ordinal body size category
  3. %Δ indicates the percentage change in estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels, comparing women with heavy body size category to average sized women, and was estimated by taking the ratio of the geometric mean difference in estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels between women reporting heavy body size categories minus average body size category to the geometric mean of women with average body size, multiplied by 100 (we could do this in the table to slight)
  4. p-diff was estimated using the Wald test and indicates a p-value for comparing estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels of women with current heavy body size vs. average body size
  5. Bold p-values represent FDR ≤ 0.05