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Table 2 Geometric means (pmol/L) and 95% CIs of serum estrogens/estrogen metabolites by current body mass index in postmenopausal control women not using menopausal hormone therapy in the Ghana Breast Health Study

From: Measured body size and serum estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women: the Ghana Breast Health Study

  Geometric mean (95% CI) p-trend p-diff
Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) Healthy weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) Obese (30 + kg/m2)
N 20 193 169 154    
Median BMI (kg/m2) 18 22 27 34    
Estrone 144.97 (88.25–238.13) 224.99 (170.21–297.39) 318.61 (239.30–424.21) 448.63 (336.80–597.58)  < 0.0001 99.4  < 0.0001
 Unconjugated 41.70 (32.20–54.00) 50.89 (43.47–59.59) 64.64 (54.90–76.12) 78.90 (66.57–93.53)  < 0.0001 55.0  < 0.0001
 Conjugated 93.85 (50.12–175.77) 165.03 (117.93–230.94) 251.15 (178.34–353.68) 366.55 (260.70–515.40)  < 0.0001 122.1  < 0.0001
Estradiol 16.77 (10.73–26.23) 19.68 (14.73–26.31) 29.63 (21.93–40.02) 41.81 (31.07–56.27)  < 0.0001 112.4  < 0.0001
 Unconjugated 11.50 (8.05–16.42) 13.26 (10.37–16.95) 19.80 (15.25–25.71) 27.83 (21.47–36.07)  < 0.0001 109.9  < 0.0001
 Conjugated 2.24 (0.83–6.03) 3.32 (1.65–6.67) 5.02 (2.50–10.08) 7.32 (3.67–14.59)  < 0.0001 120.4  < 0.0001
2-Hydroxyestrone 45.44 (37.43–55.16) 51.36 (45.24–58.31) 53.48 (46.66–61.30) 58.42 (51.15–66.73) 0.01 13.7 0.03
2-Hydroxyestradiol 12.35 (8.23–18.53) 9.38 (7.04–12.51) 8.39 (6.22–11.31) 8.50 (6.37–11.36) 0.06 − 9.4 0.24
2-Methoxyestrone 19.75 (14.41–27.06) 21.17 (17.44–25.70) 21.43 (17.55–26.17) 23.20 (18.91–28.46) 0.15 9.6 0.20
 Unconjugated 8.54 (5.90–12.36) 8.56 (6.84–10.71) 9.07 (7.22–11.40) 8.42 (6.68–10.62) 0.93 − 1.6 0.84
 Conjugated 8.67 (5.29–14.21) 9.57 (7.26–12.60) 9.94 (7.58–13.02) 12.75 (9.61–16.92) 0.02 33.3 0.02
2-Methoxyestradiol 10.55 (7.23–15.38) 12.92 (10.00–16.68) 12.82 (10.01–16.42) 13.17 (10.18–17.03) 0.44 1.9 0.78
 Unconjugated 2.88 (2.02–4.11) 2.86 (2.27–3.60) 2.89 (2.27–3.68) 2.94 (2.32–3.73) 0.65 3.0 0.62
 Conjugated 6.39 (3.61–11.29) 9.09 (6.33–13.04) 8.36 (5.88–11.89) 8.89 (6.22–12.70) 0.76 − 2.2 0.83
2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether 3.52 (2.56–4.83) 3.68 (2.97–4.58) 3.69 (2.96–4.60) 3.79 (3.06–4.71) 0.61 3.0 0.69
4-Hydroxyestrone 6.29 (4.35–9.09) 6.62 (4.76–9.21) 7.13 (5.16–9.84) 8.36 (6.06–11.52) 0.004 26.3 0.007
4-Methoxyestrone 3.95 (2.96–5.27) 3.58 (2.87–4.46) 3.62 (2.89–4.54) 3.60 (2.89–4.47) 0.85 0.5 0.94
4-Methoxyestradiol 1.48 (1.04–2.11) 1.54 (1.24–1.92) 1.45 (1.18–1.78) 1.58 (1.28–1.97) 0.73 2.6 0.71
16α-Hydroxyestrone 23.04 (14.78–35.90) 29.08 (20.92–40.42) 37.98 (27.19–53.04) 50.14 (36.11–69.62)  < 0.0001 72.4  < 0.0001
Estriol 82.19 (58.33–115.80) 82.48 (65.95–103.16) 95.37 (75.16–121.02) 105.42 (83.45–133.17) 0.001 27.8 0.002
 Unconjugated 9.28 (7.62–11.29) 9.43 (8.38–10.62) 10.05 (8.97–11.27) 9.21 (8.21–10.33) 0.78 − 2.4 0.56
 Conjugated 70.77 (47.79–104.79) 70.06 (54.67–89.77) 82.52 (63.50–107.24) 94.71 (73.17–122.60) 0.0006 35.2 0.0007
16-Ketoestradiol 11.97 (8.87–16.16) 17.24 (13.76–21.59) 19.72 (15.58–24.97) 27.89 (22.13–35.14)  < 0.0001 61.8  < 0.0001
16-Epiestriol 17.41 (11.22–27.02) 16.63 (13.07–21.16) 18.96 (14.91–24.09) 20.47 (16.06–26.08) 0.011 23.0 0.008
17-Epiestriol 28.50 (19.39–41.90) 25.07 (18.83–33.38) 26.02 (19.77–34.26) 27.13 (20.51–35.88) 0.44 8.2 0.27
  1. Geometric means adjusted for age at blood draw (continuous), blood draw year (2013, 2014, 2015), smoking status (never, former, current, missing), diabetes (yes, no, missing), time since menopause (≤ 2, 3–5, 6–10, > 10, missing), ever used oral contraceptives (yes, no, missing)
  2. p-trend was estimated using the Wald test for ordinal BMI category
  3. %Δ indicates the percentage change in estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels, comparing women with current BMI ≥ 30 vs. 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, and was estimated by taking the ratio of the geometric mean difference in estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels between women with current BMI ≥ 30 vs. 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 to the geometric mean of women with current BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, multiplied by 100
  4. p-diff was estimated using the Wald test and indicates a p-value comparing estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels of women with current BMI ≥ 30 vs. 18.5–24.9 kg/m2
  5. Bold p-values represent FDR q-value ≤ 0.05