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Table 3 Associations between key risk factors and breast cancer risk stratified by menopausal status at BBD diagnosis (averaged frequencies)

From: Risk factors for breast cancer development by tumor characteristics among women with benign breast disease

Variable Premenopausal women, N = 449a Postmenopausal women, N = 579a P-het
Control N = 217 Case N = 233 Multivariable model* Control N = 297 Case N = 282 Multivariable model*
Na %a Na %a OR (95% CI)* Na %a Na %a OR (95% CI)*
Age at first full-term birth/years
 Nulliparous/≥ 30 57 26.3 83 35.7 1.00 (ref) 50 17.0 56 20.0 1.00 (ref) 0.35
 < 30 160 73.7 150 64.3 0.59 (0.38, 0.90) 247 83.0 226 80.0 0.81 (0.47, 1.38)  
P-value      0.015      0.43  
Family history of breast cancer
 No 190 87.5 186 80.0 1.00 (ref) 244 82.2 225 79.9 1.00 (ref) 0.28
 Yes 27 12.5 47 20.0 1.75 (1.00, 3.07) 53 17.8 57 20.1 1.18 (0.76, 1.83)  
P-value      0.052      0.46  
History of bilateral oophorectomy
 No 212 71.3 221 78.3 1.00 (ref)
 Yes 85 28.7 61 21.7 0.66 (0.44, 0.99)  
P-value          0.044  
BBD histology
 Normal/non-proliferative 178 81.9 157 67.5 1.00 (ref) 206 69.5 167 59.4 1.00 (ref) 0.47
 Proliferative without atypia 37 17.2 67 28.7 2.06 (1.27, 3.33) 87 29.2 97 34.2 1.41 (0.97, 2.03)  
 Proliferative with atypia 2 0.9 9 3.9 5.45 (1.14, 26.15) 4 1.4 18 6.4 5.65 (1.86, 17.14)  
P-trend      0.015      0.41  
Columnar cell lesionsb
 None 179 83.2 188 81.1 1.00 (ref) 271 91.3 238 84.6 1.00 (ref) 0.09
 Present with/without atypia 36 16.9 44 18.9 1.09 (0.65, 1.82) 26 8.7 43 15.4 2.08 (1.21, 3.58)  
P-value      0.73      0.008  
  1. BBD benign breast disease, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio. aAveraged frequencies. bTwo controls (all premenopausal women) and two cases (1 pre- and 1 postmenopausal women) were missing for columnar cell lesions. *OR and 95% CI estimates were calculated using unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for continuous age at BBD and follow-up period from BBD diagnosis to breast cancer diagnosis, categorized BBD calendar year as a trend, family history of breast cancer in 1st-degree relatives, BBD histology, and parity. Postmenopausal women were additionally adjusted for history of bilateral oophorectomy. P-heterogeneity was calculated from multivariable analyses comparing pre- versus postmenopausal women