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Table 2 Multivariable associations between select patient characteristics and histologic features with breast cancer risk by ER status (N = 969)

From: Risk factors for breast cancer development by tumor characteristics among women with benign breast disease

Variable Controls (N = 514) Cases, ER+ (N = 391) ER+ vs. controls Cases, ER− (N = 64) ER− vs. controls P-het
Na %a Na %a OR (95% CI)* Na %a OR (95% CI)*
Age at first full-term birth/years
 Nulliparous/≥ 30 108 20.9 88 27.6 1.00 (ref) 13 20.3 1.00 (ref) 0.24
  < 30 406 79.1 231 72.4 0.69 (0.49, 0.98) 51 79.7 1.08 (0.51, 2.30)  
P-value      0.038    0.84  
Family history of breast cancer
 No 434 84.4 257 80.7 1.00 (ref) 50 77.5 1.00 (ref) 0.56
 Yes 80 15.6 62 19.3 1.30 (0.89, 1.88) 14 22.5 1.60 (0.77, 3.33)  
P-value      0.17    0.20  
History of bilateral oophorectomy
 No 429 83.4 346 88.6 1.00 (ref) 55 85.9 1.00 (ref) 0.42
 Yes 85 16.6 45 11.4 0.59 (0.38, 0.90) 9 14.1 0.82 (0.37, 1.80)  
P-value      0.015    0.62  
BBD histology
 Normal/non-proliferative 384 74.7 243 62.2 1.00 (ref) 43 67.2 1.00 (ref) 0.45
 Proliferative without atypia 124 24.1 127 32.5 1.70 (1.25, 2.30) 20 31.3 1.49 (0.84, 2.67)  
 Proliferative with atypia 6 1.2 21 5.4 5.48 (2.14, 14.01) 1 1.6  
P-trend      < 0.0001    
Subjective impression of involution
 None/mildly involuted (0–24%) 235 45.7 187 47.8 1.00 (ref) 27 42.2 1.00 (ref) 0.85
 Partially involuted (25–74%) 75 14.6 78 20.0 1.38 (0.93, 2.04) 12 18.8 1.48 (0.70, 3.13)  
 Completely involuted (≥ 75%) 135 26.3 84 21.5 0.87 (0.61, 1.24) 15 23.4 1.07 (0.53, 2.13)  
 No TDLU observed 69 13.4 42 10.7 0.69 (0.43, 1.10) 10 15.6 1.28 (0.57, 2.91)  
P-trendb      0.68    0.90  
Columnar cell lesionsc
 None 450 87.9 328 84.1 1.00 (ref) 53 82.8 1.00 (ref) 0.94
 Present with/without atypia 62 12.1 62 15.9 1.54 (1.03, 2.29) 11 17.2 1.50 (0.73, 3.07)  
P-value      0.034    0.27  
  1. Fifty-nine cases who had missing ER status were excluded from modeling analyses. BBD benign breast disease, CI confidence interval, ER estrogen receptor, OR odds ratio. aAveraged frequencies and percentages. bWomen with zero-TDLU observed were not included in trend tests or heterogeneity tests. cTwo controls and two cases were missing for columnar cell lesions. *OR and 95% CI estimates were calculated using polytomous logistic regression models adjusted for categorized BBD diagnosis calendar year as a trend, continuous age at BBD and follow-up period from BBD diagnosis to breast cancer diagnosis, family history of breast cancer in 1st-degree relatives, history of bilateral oophorectomy, BBD histology, and parity. P-heterogeneity was calculated from case-case analyses. Involution and columnar cell lesion associations were adjusted for all factors above the line indicated in OR*