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Table 4 Associations between changing slope in body mass index and clinical outcomes: multivariable Cox models*

From: Impact of post-diagnosis weight change on survival outcomes in Black and White breast cancer patients

  Overall survival Breast cancer-specific survival Disease-free survival
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Changing slope in BMI
Loss > 0.5 kg/m2/year 2.60 (1.88–3.59) < 0.001 3.05 (1.91–4.86) < 0.001 2.12 (1.52–2.96) < 0.001
Stable (≤ 0.5 kg/m2/year) 1.0 (ref.)   1.0 (ref.)   1.0 (ref.)  
Gain > 0.5 kg/m2/year 1.60 (1.10–2.33) 0.014 1.73 (1.04–2.87) 0.035 1.54 (1.06–2.24) 0.024
Race/ethnicity
 Black vs. White 1.98 (1.49–2.64) < 0.001 2.06 (1.40–3.04) < 0.001 2.02 (1.51–2.69) < 0.001
 Asian vs. White 1.38 (0.59–3.18) 0.46 1.92 (0.75–4.90) 0.18 1.21 (0.49–3.03) 0.68
 Hispanic vs. White 0.32 (0.08–1.30) 0.11 0.59 (0.14–2.45) 0.47 0.31 (0.08–1.28) 0.11
Age per 10 years 1.33 (1.19–1.49) < 0.001 1.16 (1.01–1.34) 0.036 1.35 (1.20–1.51) < 0.001
Carlson comorbidity index
 1 vs. 0 1.28 (0.84–1.94) 0.26 1.41 (0.84–2.38) 0.20 1.35 (0.88–2.09) 0.17
 2 vs. 0 2.62 (1.82–3.76) < 0.001 1.28 (0.70–2.35) 0.43 2.87 (1.99–4.13) < 0.001
 3 vs. 0 3.36 (2.17–5.18) < 0.001 1.05 (0.43–2.56) 0.91 3.48 (2.24–5.41) < 0.001
Tumor stage
 0 vs. 1 0.67 (0.16–2.82) 0.59 0.0**   0.68 (0.16–2.87) 0.60
 2 vs. 1 1.34 (0.96–1.86) 0.087 2.42 (1.43–4.08) 0.001 1.40 (1.00–1.97) 0.048
 3 vs. 1 2.71 (1.83–4.01) < 0.001 5.92 (3.35–10.48) < 0.001 2.46 (1.63–3.70) < 0.001
Histologic grade
 2 vs. 1 1.48 (0.86–2.54) 0.16 4.41 (1.06–18.41) 0.042 1.43 (0.85–2.39) 0.18
 3 vs. 1 1.76 (0.97–3.17) 0.06 7.32 (1.70–31.54) 0.008 1.60 (0.91–2.84) 0.11
Molecular subtype
 ER/PR+, her2+ vs. ER/PR+/her2− 0.85 (0.52–1.40) 0.53 0.53 (0.26–1.10) 0.088 0.80 (0.48–1.33) 0.38
 ER/PR−, her2+ vs. ER/PR+/her2− 0.86 (0.40–1.84) 0.70 0.93 (0.36–2.38) 0.88 0.69 (0.31–1.55) 0.37
 Triple negative vs. ER/PR+/her2− 1.19 (0.66–2.14) 0.56 1.28 (0.60–2.71) 0.53 0.95 (0.52–1.74) 0.87
 Radiotherapy 0.86 (0.65–1.14) 0.30 0.70 (0.48–1.02) 0.063 1.02 (0.76–1.36) 0.91
 Hormonal therapy 0.93 (0.56–1.54) 0.78 0.96 (0.48–1.92) 0.91 0.96 (0.57–1.61) 0.88
 Chemotherapy 1.10 (0.75–1.62) 0.62 0.91 (0.52–1.57) 0.73 1.25 (0.85–1.85) 0.26
  1. *All variables in the table are included in the three multivariable Cox models
  2. **No DCIS patents died from breast cancer
  3. Abbreviation: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence intervals, BMI body mass index, ER estrogen receptor, PR progesterone receptor