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Table 5 Summary of existing studies reporting associations between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and breast cancer

From: Association of breast cancer with MRI background parenchymal enhancement: the IMAGINE case-control study

Author Number of breast cancer cases Number of comparison women MRI assessment methods Association between BPE and breast cancer
Blind to clinical data Blind to affected breast Pre-menopausal Post-menopausal Overall
Arasua et al. [16, 29] 129 (invasive)
47 (DCIS)
4071 (cancer-free) No N/Aa HR 3.0b (1.3–7.1) HR 2.6b (1.4–4.6) HR 2.3b (1.5–3.4)
Grimm et al. [17] 43 (invasive)
18 (DCIS)
122 (cancer-free) Yes No    OR 2.5b (1.3–4.8)
Melsaether et al. [20] 81 (invasive)
35 (DCIS)
116 (cancer-free) Yes No    2 readers at 3 time points (range: OR 1.0 to 7.7),e
Bennani-Baiti et al. [18] 353 (invasive) 187 (benign) Yes No    OR 1.2d (0.5–3.3)
Telegrafo et al. [19] 78 (invasive) 52 (benign) 50 (negative) Yes No    
Dontchos et al. 12 (invasive)
11 (DCIS)
23 (cancer-free) Yes No    OR 9.0b (1.1–71.0)
Albert et al. [21] 294 (invasive)
104 (in situ)
72 (cancer-free) Yes No f f  
King et al. [14] 25 (invasive)
14 (DCIS)
78 (cancer-free) No No OR 2.2c (0.4–11.6) OR 4.1c (1.3–13.2) OR 3.3c (1.3–8.3)
  1. Abbreviations: DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ, HR hazards ratio, OR odds ratio
  2. aCohort study. All others are case-control studies
  3. bComparing mild/moderate/marked vs minimal BPE
  4. cComparing moderate/marked vs minimal/mild BPE
  5. dOR for a 1-unit increase in BPE
  6. eComparing controls that later developed breast cancer (n = 9) to those that did not develop breast cancer (107)
  7. fP value for age-adjusted association between BPE and breast cancer was 0.15 for premenopausal women and < 0.001 for postmenopausal women. However, direction of association is not given and data provided do not permit calculation of ORs