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Table 3 Adjusted association between BPE and breast cancer in the IMAGINE study

From: Association of breast cancer with MRI background parenchymal enhancement: the IMAGINE case-control study

Premenopausal women
BPE classificationa Cases Controls ORb 95% CI
4-level BPE N (%) N (%)   
 Minimal 84 (18%) 107 (18%) Reference  
 Mild 206 (43%) 287 (48%) 1.00 0.63–1.58
 Moderate 138 (29%) 137 (23%) 1.72 1.03–2.88
 Marked 49 (10%) 62 (10%) 1.00 0.51–1.94
Dichotomous BPE
 Minimal/mild BPEc 290 (61%) 394 (66%) Reference  
 Moderate/marked BPE 187 (39%) 199 (34%) 1.49 1.05–2.11
Women with BMI < 25d
 Minimal/mild BPE 197 (65%) 266 (70%) Reference  
 Moderate/marked BPE 106 (35%) 112 (30%) 1.31 0.84–2.03
Women with BMI ≥ 25
 Minimal/mild BPE 93 (53%) 128 (60%) Reference  
 Moderate/marked BPE 81 (47%) 87 (40%) 1.86 1.03–3.37
Postmenopausal women
BPE classification Cases Controls ORa 95% CI
 Minimal 94 (36%) 162 (50%) Reference  
 Mild 125 (48%) 124 (39%) 1.42 0.89–2.28
 Moderate 31 (12%) 30 (9%) 1.64 0.75–3.59
 Marked 10 (4%) 6 (2%) 1.32 0.38–4.55
Dichotomous BPE
 Minimal BPEc 94 (36%) 162 (50%) Reference  
 Mild/moderate/marked BPE 166 (64%) 160 (50%) 1.45 0.92–2.27
Women with BMI < 25
 Minimal BPE 56 (52%) 116 (57%) Reference  
 Mild/moderate/marked BPE 52 (48%) 86 (43%) 1.06 0.58–1.96
Women with BMI ≥ 25
 Minimal BPE 38 (25%) 46 (38%) Reference  
 Mild/moderate/marked BPE 114 (75%) 74 (62%) 2.20 1.02–4.71
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index
  2. aEstimated for a single unaffected breast using BI-RADS (Breast Imaging - Reporting and Data System) guidelines by a single research radiologist blinded to case-control status, clinical characteristics, and medical history
  3. bORs are estimated in a multivariable conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for FGT (heterogeneous/dense vs fatty/scattered); history of simple hysterectomy; BMI (< 25, ≥ 25 and < 30, ≥ 30 kg/m¬2); parity; 1st-degree female family history or 1st- or 2nd-degree male family history of breast cancer; BRCA testing history; presence of BRCA mutations; history of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); history of benign breast disease; and conditioned on matching criteria: race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White vs other), recruitment site, and age at MRI (5-year categories)
  4. cParameterization of BPE differs for premenopausal and postmenopausal women to capture differing distributions of BPE in these groups
  5. dModels stratified by BMI at the time of MRI