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Table 1 Characteristics of the IMAGINE study participants

From: Association of breast cancer with MRI background parenchymal enhancement: the IMAGINE case-control study

  Premenopausal women Postmenopausal women
Cases Controls Cases Controls
N = 553 N = 623 N = 282 N = 340
Age, median (25th, 75th percentile) 45 (40, 48) 42 (37, 47) 59 (55, 63) 57 (53, 62)
Recruitment site
 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 373 (67%) 431 (69%) 165 (59%) 223 (66%)
 University of Pennsylvania Medical Center 65 (12%) 67 (11%) 44 (16%) 50 (15%)
 University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute 115 (21%) 125 (20%) 73 (26%) 67 (20%)
Menopausal status and reasona
 Premenopausal 537 (97%) 597 (96%)   
 Premenopausal (simple hysterectomy) 16 (3%) 26 (4%)   
 Postmenopausal (natural)    212 (75%) 207 (61%)
 Postmenopausal (oophorectomy)    25 (9%) 93 (27%)
 Postmenopausal (simple hysterectomy)    38 (13%) 37 (11%)
 Postmenopausal (reason unknown)    7 (3%) 3 (1%)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 451 (81%) 513 (82%) 227 (80%) 301 (89%)
 Non-Hispanic Black 31 (6%) 24 (4%) 17 (6%) 14 (4%)
 Non-Hispanic Asian 31 (6%) 26 (4%) 15 (5%) 10 (3%)
 Non-Hispanic (another race) 10 (2%) 16 (3%) 3 (1%) 3 (1%)
 Hispanic (any race) 30 (5%) 44 (7%) 20 (8%) 12 (3%)
Ever smoker
 Never 426 (77%) 485 (78%) 194 (69%) 254 (75%)
 Ever 127 (23%) 138 (22%) 88 (31%) 86 (25%)
Body mass index at time of MRIb (kg/m2)
 < 25 346 (63%) 400 (64%) 113 (40%) 208 (61%)
 25 to < 30 121 (22%) 143 (23%) 96 (34%) 67 (20%)
 ≥ 30 85 (15%) 78 (13%) 73 (26%) 64 (19%)
 Unknown 1 2 0 1
Parity
 0 194 (35%) 230 (37%) 67 (24%) 83 (24%)
 1 89 (15%) 77 (12%) 49 (17%) 50 (15%)
 2+ 270 (50%) 316 (51%) 166 (59%) 197 (61%)
Family history of breast cancerc
 No 399 (77%) 210 (34%) 181 (68%) 103 (31%)
 Yes 116 (23%) 399 (66%) 85 (32%) 231 (69%)
 Unknown (n) 38 14 16 6
BRCA1 mutationd
 Negative 340 (66%) 202 (33%) 99 (36%) 127 (39%)
 Positive 9 (1.7%) 78 (13%) 4 (1.4%) 29 (8.8%)
 Not tested 166 (32%) 329 (54%) 173 (63%) 173 (53%)
 Unknown 38 14 6 11
BRCA2 mutationd
 Negative 340 (66%) 202 (33%) 95 (34%) 105 (32%)
 Positive 9 (1.7%) 78 (13%) 8 (2.9%) 51 (16%)
 Not tested 166 (32%) 329 (54%) 173 (63%) 173 (53%)
 Unknown 38 14 6 11
History of LCIS
 No 546 (99%) 584 (94%) 274 (97%) 302 (89%)
 Yes 7 (1%) 39 (6%) 8 (3%) 38 (11%)
History of benign breast disease
 No 443 (80%) 332 (53%) 210 (74%) 160 (47%)
 Yes 110 (20%) 291 (47%) 72 (26%) 180 (53%)
MRIfibroglandular tissue
 Almost entirely fat     
 Scattered FGT     
Characteristics of cases N = 553   N = 282  
Estrogen receptor
 Negative 88 (16%)   59 (21%)  
 Positive 462 (84%)   222 (79%)  
 Unknown 3   1  
Progesterone receptor
 Negative 114 (21%)   91 (33%)  
 Positive 436 (79%)   188 (67%)  
 Unknown 3   3  
HER2 expression
 Negative 443 (82%)   236 (86%)  
 Positive 95 (18%)   37 (14%)  
 Unknown 15   9  
Triple-negativee subtype
 No 483 (90%)   232 (85%)  
 Yes 55 (10%)   41 (15%)  
 Unknown 15   9  
Histology
 Ductal only 492 (90%)   226 (82%)  
 Mixed ductal/lobular 6 (1%)   3 (1%)  
 Lobular 43 (8%)   39 (14%)  
 Other 5 (1%)   9 (3%)  
 Unknown 7   5  
Stage
 Localized (breast only) 383 (69%)   214 (76%)  
 Regional (breast and regional nodes) 162 (29%)   62 (22%)  
 Distant 8 (2%)   4 (2%)  
 Unknown 0   2  
  1. Abbreviation: LCIS lobular carcinoma in situ, HER2 human epidermal growth factor 2
  2. a“Premenopausal” refers to women who report continued menstrual cycles; “premenopausal (simple hysterectomy”) refers to women whose menstrual cycles stopped after a simple hysterectomy and were under 50 years of age at time of MRI; “postmenopausal” refers to women who reported a natural stop of menstrual cycles; “postmenopausal (oophorectomy)” refers to women who underwent menopause due to a bilateral oophorectomy; “postmenopausal (simple hysterectomy) refers to women whose menstrual cycles stopped after a hysterectomy and were 50 years of age or older at the time of MRI; “postmenopausal (other)” refers to women whose menstrual cycle stopped due to medication or medical procedures or did not give further details
  3. bCalculated using self-reported height (m) and weight (kg)
  4. cIncludes 1st-degree female relatives and any1st- or 2nd-degree male relative
  5. dSelf-reported by participants via structured questionnaire; variants of unknown significance were considered negative
  6. eTriple-negative refers to women with tumors negative for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and HER2 expression