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Table 3 Summary of outcomes in the included studies

From: Prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT for assessment of treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author PET timing Parameter DFS OS
Akimoto [12] After completion %ΔSUVmax > 80 N/S for TN or HER2+ NR
   SUVmax ≤ 1.3 P = 0.026 for TN or HER2+ NR
Champion [13] After 3 cycles %ΔSUVmax N/S N/S
  After completion %ΔSUVmax > 72 P = 0.05*
Adjusted P = 0.01*
N/S
Chen [14] During or after Mid- or post-SUVmax HR = 1.13 (1.06–1.21)
Adjusted HR = 1.09 (1.01–1.17)
HR = 1.16 (1.08–1.24)
Adjusted HR = 1.14 (1.06–1.23)
   Mid- or post-SUVmax < 2.5 HR = 0.28 (0.13–0.62) HR = 0.25 (0.11–0.60)
   %ΔSUVmax N/S N/S
Dunnwald [15] At mid-therapy Log2(SUVpeak) N/S HR = 1.96 (1.14–3.34)
Adjusted HR = N/S
   Δ%SUVpeak N/S HR = 0.72 (0.54–0.96)
Adjusted HR = N/S
Emmering [16] After completion CMR HR = 0.24 (0.08–0.79)
Adjusted HR = 0.28 (0.08–0.96)
N/S
Garcia Vicente [17] After 2 cycles CMR-tumour N/S N/S
   %Δtumour-SUVmax ≥ 62 N/S N/S
   CMR-lymph node N/S N/S
  After completion CMR-tumour N/S N/S
   CMR-lymph node P = 0.003
Adjusted P = N/S
P = 0.016
Adjusted P = N/S
   Tumour-SUVmax < 1.05: HR = 0.06 (0.01–0.47) < 1.15: N/S
   Lymph node-SUVmax < 1.30: N/S < 0.40: N/S
   %Δtumour-SUVmax ≥ 74: N/S ≥ 84: N/S
Groheux [18] After 2 cycles SUVmax < 7.4 P = 0.011 NR
   %ΔSUVmax ≥ 12 P = 0.033 NR
   TLG < 30.5 P = 0.017 NR
   %ΔTLG ≥ 51 P < 0.001 NR
Groheux [19] After 2 cycles %ΔSUVmax HR = 0.86 (0.78–0.94)
Adjusted P = 0.004
NR
   %ΔSUVmax P = 0.021 and P = 0.028 NR
Humbert [20] After 1 cycle %ΔSUVmax ≥ 16 HR = 0.19 (0.06–0.64) HR = 0.09 (0.02–0.54)
Humbert [21] After 1 cycle %ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% N/S N/S
Hyun [22] After completion Log2(SUVmax) HR = 1.86 (1.38–2.51)
Adjusted HR = 1.51 (1.04–2.19)
NR
   %ΔSUVmax HR = 0.98 (0.97–0.99)
Adjusted HR = 0.99 (0.98–1.00)
NR
   Log2(MTV) HR = 1.26 (1.15–1.38)
Adjusted HR = 1.14 (1.01–1.27)
NR
   %ΔMTV HR = 0.99 (0.99–1.00)
Adjusted HR = 1.00 (0.99–1.00)
NR
Ishiba [23] After completion SUVmax ≤ 1.7 P = 0.004
Adjusted P = 0.014
P = 0.01
Adjusted P = 0.029
Jung [24] After completion Δ%SUVpeak ≥ 84.8 P = 0.04
Adjusted P = N/S
NR
Kim [25] After completion SUVmax HR = 1.20 (1.12–1.28) NR
   MTV HR = 1.02 (1.01–1.03) NR
   TLG HR = 1.00 (0.99–1.00) NR
   %ΔSUVmax HR = 0.99 (0.98–0.99) NR
   %ΔMTV HR = 1.00 (0.99–1.00)
Adjusted HR = 0.99 (0.98–1.00)
NR
   %ΔMTV > 90.7 HR = 0.39 (0.19–0.79) NR
   %ΔTLG HR = 0.99 (0.99–1.00) NR
Kitajima [26] After completion CMR HR = 0.15 (0.02–0.70)
Adjusted HR = N/S
NR
Kiyoto [27] After completion %ΔSUVmax > 15.9 HR = 0.18 (0.05–0.88) NR
Kolesnikov-Gauthier [28] After 1 cycle %ΔSUVmax > 15 4-year DFS: 85% vs. 44%, P = 0.008 N/S
Lee [29] After 3 cycles %ΔSUVmax > 66.4 P < 0.001 P = 0.009
   %ΔSUVmax HR = 0.97 (0.95–0.98)
Adjusted HR = 0.97 (0.95–0.99)
HR = 0.98 (0.96–0.99)
Adjusted HR = 0.97 (0.95–0.99)
Lian [30] After 2 cycles CMR HR = 0.17 (0.04–0.73)
Adjusted HR = 0.04 (0.00–0.42)
NR
Lim [31] After 1 cycle %ΔSUVmax > 41 P < 0.001
Adjusted HR = 0.13 (0.03–0.49)
NR
Zucchini [32] After 2 cycles %ΔSUVmax > 50 N/S for all
P = 0.049 for ER+/HER2−
NR
  1. *Distant metastasis-free survival
  2. As continuous variables
  3. For two cohorts with different NAC regimens
  4. %ΔSUVmax was defined as (SUVmax at baseline PET − SUVmax at interim or post-treatment PET)/SUVmax at baseline PET × 100%
  5. CMR complete response, DFS disease-free survival, ER oestrogen receptor, HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HR hazard ratio, MTV metabolic tumour volume, NR not reported, N/S not significant, OS overall survival, SUV standardised uptake value, TLG total lesion glycolysis, TN triple-negative